Anatomic correction of transposition of the great arteries with ventricular septal defect. Experience with 118 cases.J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1991 Jul; 102(1):140-7.JT
One hundred eighteen patients, 100 with transposition of the great arteries plus ventricular septal defect and 18 with double-outlet right ventricle and subpulmonary ventricular septal defect have undergone arterial switch and patch closure of the ventricular septal defect since February 1983. In transposition of the great arteries the ventricular septal defect was perimembranous in 70 cases, trabecular in 28, and infundibular in 10. Eleven patients had multiple ventricular septal defects. In addition to 18 patients with double-outlet right ventricle, malalignment of the conal septum was present in 19 cases. Coronary type A distribution was recognized in 79 cases, type C in one, type D in 24, and type E in 14. Great arteries were side by side in 19% of cases. Aortic coarctation was present in 31 cases, and subaortic obstruction in 9. Age at operation ranged from 4 days to 4 years (mean, 3.5 +/- 8.3 months), and mean weight was 4.0 +/- 1.6 kg. Thirty-seven infants were younger than age 1 month. Thirty-six patients underwent previous operations: pulmonary artery banding alone (n = 13), pulmonary artery banding and coarctation repair (n = 13), and coarctation repair alone (n = 10). Mean time between the first procedure and the switch was 2.2 months. Six patients with aortic coarctation underwent one-stage repair, through median sternotomy, aortic reconstruction, closure of the ventricular septal defect, and arterial switch. Perioperative mortality was 13.5% (70% confidence limit 10% to 17.6%, n = 16). It was directly related to coronary artery kinking in 50% of deaths and to anatomy and size discrepancy of the great arteries in the remaining deaths. Univariate analysis could not find any significant risk factor of in-hospital mortality. Mean follow-up of 30.3 +/- 23.5 months was achieved in all but 2 survivors. There was one late death. Ten patients underwent 11 reoperations for recoarctation (n = 1), pulmonary stenosis (n = 7), residual ventricular septal defect (n = 2), and stenosis of superior vena cava (n = 1). Two patients needed a permanent pacemaker. Actuarial survival and freedom from reoperation at 5 years were 84.5% +/- 3.6% and 85.7% +/- 4.6%, respectively. We conclude that anatomic correction of complex transposition is a safe method that offers good early and midterm results.