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Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia).
J Morphol. 2010 Sep; 271(9):1119-33.JM

Abstract

The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and thyrohyal bones, is a consistent and probably synapomorphic feature of xenarthrans. Fusion of other elements is variable in fossil xenarthrans. Most fossil sloths retain independent elements, as in living dasypodids and mammals generally. Among nothrotheriids, the elements are slender and their articular surfaces indicate considerable mobility, and the relatively long and horizontal orientation of the geniohyoid muscle suggests considerable tongue protrusion. Among mylodontines, such as Paramylodon and Glossotherium, the elements indicate relatively mobile articulations, except between the stylo- and epihyals. The relatively posterior placement of the apparatus and the length and alignment of the geniohyoid muscle indicate considerable capacity for tongue protrusion. Scelidotherium, however, had rigidly articulated stylohyal and epihyal, and the apparatus lies farther anteriorly, which together with the elongated, steeply inclined mandibular symphysis, indicates a relatively shorter geniohyoid muscle and thus more limited capacity for tongue protrusion. A similar situation is indicated for Megatherium, casting doubt on the classical reconstruction of this sloth as having a long prehensile tongue. Among cingulates Prozaedyus resembles living dasypodids, indicating considerable tongue protrusion important in food acquisition and intake. More extensive fusion of hyoid elements occurs in the cingulates Glyptodon and Proeutatus, in which the stylohyal and epihyal at least, are fused into a single element termed the sigmohyal. The presence of this element supports recent proposals of a sister-group relationship between glyptodonts and eutatines. The rigidity of the apparatus suggests limited tongue protrusion, but the tongue, in glyptodonts at least, was a powerful structure important for intraoral manipulation of food.

Authors+Show Affiliations

División Paleozoología Invertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque, La Plata, Argentina.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20730924

Citation

Pérez, Leandro M., et al. "Morphology and Function of the Hyoid Apparatus of Fossil Xenarthrans (mammalia)." Journal of Morphology, vol. 271, no. 9, 2010, pp. 1119-33.
Pérez LM, Toledo N, De Iuliis G, et al. Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia). J Morphol. 2010;271(9):1119-33.
Pérez, L. M., Toledo, N., De Iuliis, G., Bargo, M. S., & Vizcaíno, S. F. (2010). Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia). Journal of Morphology, 271(9), 1119-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10859
Pérez LM, et al. Morphology and Function of the Hyoid Apparatus of Fossil Xenarthrans (mammalia). J Morphol. 2010;271(9):1119-33. PubMed PMID: 20730924.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Morphology and function of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans (mammalia). AU - Pérez,Leandro M, AU - Toledo,Néstor, AU - De Iuliis,Gerardo, AU - Bargo,M Susana, AU - Vizcaíno,Sergio F, PY - 2010/8/24/entrez PY - 2010/8/24/pubmed PY - 2010/9/29/medline SP - 1119 EP - 33 JF - Journal of morphology JO - J. Morphol. VL - 271 IS - 9 N2 - The analysis of the hyoid apparatus of fossil xenarthrans provides insight on the form of the tongue and its function in food intake and intraoral processing. The hyoid apparatus of xenarthrans is notable for fusion among its elements. The presence of a V-bone, a complex consisting of fused basihyal and thyrohyal bones, is a consistent and probably synapomorphic feature of xenarthrans. Fusion of other elements is variable in fossil xenarthrans. Most fossil sloths retain independent elements, as in living dasypodids and mammals generally. Among nothrotheriids, the elements are slender and their articular surfaces indicate considerable mobility, and the relatively long and horizontal orientation of the geniohyoid muscle suggests considerable tongue protrusion. Among mylodontines, such as Paramylodon and Glossotherium, the elements indicate relatively mobile articulations, except between the stylo- and epihyals. The relatively posterior placement of the apparatus and the length and alignment of the geniohyoid muscle indicate considerable capacity for tongue protrusion. Scelidotherium, however, had rigidly articulated stylohyal and epihyal, and the apparatus lies farther anteriorly, which together with the elongated, steeply inclined mandibular symphysis, indicates a relatively shorter geniohyoid muscle and thus more limited capacity for tongue protrusion. A similar situation is indicated for Megatherium, casting doubt on the classical reconstruction of this sloth as having a long prehensile tongue. Among cingulates Prozaedyus resembles living dasypodids, indicating considerable tongue protrusion important in food acquisition and intake. More extensive fusion of hyoid elements occurs in the cingulates Glyptodon and Proeutatus, in which the stylohyal and epihyal at least, are fused into a single element termed the sigmohyal. The presence of this element supports recent proposals of a sister-group relationship between glyptodonts and eutatines. The rigidity of the apparatus suggests limited tongue protrusion, but the tongue, in glyptodonts at least, was a powerful structure important for intraoral manipulation of food. SN - 1097-4687 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20730924/Morphology_and_function_of_the_hyoid_apparatus_of_fossil_xenarthrans__mammalia__ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/jmor.10859 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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