Oxidative imbalance in child and adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2010; 34(8):1491-4PN
Various psychological, social, genetic, and biochemical factors are thought to be involved in the aetiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, few studies have evaluated the biochemical basis of ADHD. In the present study, we evaluate whether levels of nitric oxide pool (NO+NO(2)(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) oxidants as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activities are associated with ADHD. The sample population consisted of thirty-five child or adolescent patients diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Thirty-five healthy subjects also were included in the study as controls. Venous blood samples were collected, and NO pool and MDA levels as well as SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT activities were measured. NO and MDA levels of the patients were significantly higher than the controls. GSH-Px activities of the patients were significantly lower than the controls. CAT activities of the patients were higher than the controls; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences in SOD activity between the patient and control groups. Remarkably high levels of NO pool and MDA oxidants as well as low GSH-Px activities suggest an oxidative imbalance in paediatric patients with ADHD. CAT activities may be increased in response to increased oxidant levels.