Progesterone receptor membrane component 1 expression and putative function in bovine oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development.Reproduction. 2010 Nov; 140(5):663-72.R
Although the mRNA that encodes progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is present in mammalian oocytes, nothing is known about either PGRMC1's expression pattern or function in oocytes during maturation, fertilization, and subsequent embryonic development. As PGRMC1 associates with the mitotic spindle in somatic cells, we hypothesized that PGRMC1 is involved in oocyte maturation (meiosis). Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of PGRMC1 in bovine oocytes. This study also shows that PGRMC1 is present at the germinal vesicle (GV)- and MII-stage oocytes and is associated with male and female pronucleus formation of the zygote and is highly expressed in blastocysts. A more detailed examination of PGRMC1 localization using confocal imaging demonstrated that in GV-stage oocytes, PGRMC1 was concentrated throughout the GV but did not localize to the chromatin. With the resumption of meiosis in vitro, PGRMC1 concentrated in the centromeric region of metaphase I chromosomes, while in the anaphase I/telophase I stages the majority of PGRMC1 concentrated between the separating chromosomes. At the metaphase II stage, PGRMC1 re-associated with the centromeric region of the chromosomes. A colocalization study demonstrated that PGRMC1 associated with the phosphorylated form of aurora kinase B, which localizes to the centromeres at metaphase. Finally, PGRMC1 antibody injection significantly lowered the percentage of oocytes that matured and reached the metaphase II stage after 24 h of culture. The majority of the PGRMC1 antibody-injected oocytes arrested in the prometaphase I stage of meiosis. Furthermore, in most of the PGRMC1 antibody-injected oocytes, the chromosomes were disorganized and scattered. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PGRMC1 is expressed in bovine oocytes and its localization changes at specific stages of oocyte maturation. These observations suggest an important role for PGRMC1 in oocyte maturation, which may be specifically related to the mechanism by which chromosomes segregate.