Determination of distinctive carbohydrate signatures obtained from the Aeromonas hydrophila (chemotype II) core oligosaccharide pinpointing the presence of the 4-O-phosphorylated 5-O-linked Kdo reducing end group using electrospray ionization quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2010 Sep 15; 24(17):2475-90.RC
The electrospray quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometric (ESI-QqTOF-MS) structural elucidation of the core oligosaccharide of Aeromonas hydrophila (chemotype II) lipopolysaccharide has been investigated and it was demonstrated that it contained an 4-O-phosphorylated Kdo reducing end group, which was glycosylated by the remaining outer core oligosaccharide through its O-5 position. After releasing the core oligosaccharide from the native LPS with acid, the phosphorylated Kdo residue eliminated phosphoric acid, to produce a core oligosaccharide containing a mixture of diastereomeric 4,8- and 4,7-anhydro-alpha-keto acids and an open-chain olefinic Kdo residue. The characteristic glycone sequence was elucidated by collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) of the protonated molecule of the native core oligosaccharide. In addition, the analysis of the Hakomori permethylated core oligosaccharide was carried out by electrospray ionization quadrupole orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-QqTOF-MS analyses. The presence of more than nine isobaric isomers of this core was detected. The CID-MS/MS analysis of the various protonated permethylated core oligosaccharide molecules showed a similar and diagnostic fragmentation pattern. The over-methylation of the permethylated core oligosaccharide containing either the 4,7- or the 4,8-anhydro-alpha-keto acid unit and the open-chain olefinic Kdo unit was reported. It was realized that the extra minor satellite signals obtained in the ESI-QqTOF-MS and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses were dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) stable covalent addition products, which have occurred by a Michael addition on the 4,8-Kdo exocyclic double bond. The occurrence of this series of covalent addition products during the MS analysis of a permethylated core oligosaccharide should be considered as 'carbohydrate-distinctive signatures' establishing and confirming the presence of a 4-O-phosphorylated-5-O-linked Kdo reducing end group.