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Nutritional modulation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: human data.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13(6):709-14CO

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW

Concomitant with the obesity epidemic, a fatty liver due to nonalcoholic causes has become the most common liver disorder. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a range from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which in turn may progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD predicts, independent of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and can progress to cirrhosis. This review focuses on studies in humans addressing effects of dietary changes in NAFLD.

RECENT FINDINGS

Cross-sectionally, increased intake of fructose and simple sugars characterizes patients with NAFLD compared with weight-matched controls. Increased fructose intake is also associated with hepatic insulin resistance and fibrosis severity in NASH. Intake of saturated fat may also be increased in NAFLD. Dietary intervention studies have shown that liver volume and fat content changes significantly within a few days in response to caloric restriction or excess despite no or small changes in body weight. Weight loss by bariatric surgery decreases liver fat and inflammation but effects on fibrosis are uncertain. Hepatic insulin sensitivity generally changes in parallel with changes in liver fat content in NAFLD. Human data are limited regarding effects of isocaloric changes in diet composition on liver fat content.

SUMMARY

Maintenance of normal body weight and avoidance of intake of excess lipogenic simple sugars would seem beneficial for prevention of NAFLD and its metabolic consequences.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. ykijarvi@cc.helsinki.fi

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20842026

Citation

Yki-Järvinen, Hannele. "Nutritional Modulation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance: Human Data." Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 13, no. 6, 2010, pp. 709-14.
Yki-Järvinen H. Nutritional modulation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: human data. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(6):709-14.
Yki-Järvinen, H. (2010). Nutritional modulation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: human data. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, 13(6), pp. 709-14. doi:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833f4b34.
Yki-Järvinen H. Nutritional Modulation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance: Human Data. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(6):709-14. PubMed PMID: 20842026.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nutritional modulation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance: human data. A1 - Yki-Järvinen,Hannele, PY - 2010/9/16/entrez PY - 2010/9/16/pubmed PY - 2011/2/4/medline SP - 709 EP - 14 JF - Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care JO - Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care VL - 13 IS - 6 N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concomitant with the obesity epidemic, a fatty liver due to nonalcoholic causes has become the most common liver disorder. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a range from benign steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which in turn may progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD predicts, independent of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes and can progress to cirrhosis. This review focuses on studies in humans addressing effects of dietary changes in NAFLD. RECENT FINDINGS: Cross-sectionally, increased intake of fructose and simple sugars characterizes patients with NAFLD compared with weight-matched controls. Increased fructose intake is also associated with hepatic insulin resistance and fibrosis severity in NASH. Intake of saturated fat may also be increased in NAFLD. Dietary intervention studies have shown that liver volume and fat content changes significantly within a few days in response to caloric restriction or excess despite no or small changes in body weight. Weight loss by bariatric surgery decreases liver fat and inflammation but effects on fibrosis are uncertain. Hepatic insulin sensitivity generally changes in parallel with changes in liver fat content in NAFLD. Human data are limited regarding effects of isocaloric changes in diet composition on liver fat content. SUMMARY: Maintenance of normal body weight and avoidance of intake of excess lipogenic simple sugars would seem beneficial for prevention of NAFLD and its metabolic consequences. SN - 1473-6519 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20842026/Nutritional_modulation_of_nonalcoholic_fatty_liver_disease_and_insulin_resistance:_human_data_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833f4b34 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -