Interaction between grape-derived proanthocyanidins and cell wall material. 2. Implications for vinification.J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Oct 13; 58(19):10736-46.JA
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) were isolated from the skins, seeds and flesh of commercially ripe grapes, and from wine and marc produced from the same source. In the grape berry, skin PAs accounted for 54% of the total extractable PA, while seed and flesh-derived PA accounted for 30% and 15% of the total, respectively. Following fermentation, 25% of the fruit PA was found in the wine, while 27% was found in the pericarp isolated from marc, and 48% was unaccounted for (either remaining in the seed or adsorbed to lees). To investigate the role that cell wall material (CWM) has on PA extraction during fermentation, CWM isolated from skin and flesh were combined with PA in model suspensions. In general, the affinity of flesh CWM for PA increased with increasing PA molecular mass (MM); however, this relationship was not observed for the interaction of skin CWM with skin PA. Subsequent experiments suggest that the differences in the interaction of flesh and skin CWM with PA of higher MM (>15000 g/mol) may be limited by the structure of the CWM. Observed variations in the composition between skin and flesh CWM may explain the differences in PA interaction at high MM. Among wine-derived PA, no higher MM material was detected, suggesting that, during vinification, higher MM PA are nonextractable and/or are removed from the wine by interaction with CWM.