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Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Māori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey.
Br J Nutr. 2011 Feb; 105(3):436-46.BJ

Abstract

Few multi-ethnic national surveys have examined Zn nutriture, despite its importance for optimal growth and development during childhood. We assessed the Zn status of urban and semi-urban children aged 5-15 years from three ethnic groups in New Zealand (NZ) in the 2002 Children's National Nutrition Survey and investigated the factors predisposing them to Zn deficiency. In a 10-month cross-sectional survey, Pacific and Māori children were over-sampled permitting ethnic-specific analyses. Anthropometry, serum Zn and Zn intakes via 24 h recalls were measured. Anthropometric z scores were highest in Pacific children. Overall, mean adjusted serum Zn at 11 years was for males and females, respectively: 11·9 (95% CI 11·5, 12·3) and 12·5 (95% CI 12·0, 12·9) μmol/l in NZ European and Other (NZEO) children (n 395); 11·9 (95% CI 11·4, 12·4) and 12·0 (95% CI 11·4, 12·5) μmol/l in Māori children (n 379); and 11·5 (95% CI 11·1, 11·9) and 11·4 (95% CI 11·1, 11·8) μmol/l in Pacific children (n 589). The predictors of serum Zn were age, serum Se and sex for NZEO children; serum Se and age for Pacific children; and none for Māori children. Pacific children had the highest prevalence of low serum Zn (21 (95% CI 11, 30) %), followed by Māori children (16 (95% CI 12, 20) %) and NZEO children (15 (95% CI 9, 21) %). Prevalence of inadequate Zn intakes, although low, reached 8% for Pacific children who had the lowest Zn intake/kg body weight. Pacific boys but not girls with low serum Zn had a lower mean height-for-age z-score (P < 0·007) than those with normal serum Zn. We conclude that the biochemical risk of Zn deficiency in Pacific children indicates a public health problem. However, a lack of concordance with the risk of dietary Zn inadequacy suggests the need for better defined cut-offs in children.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand. rosalind.gibson@stonebow.otago.ac.nzNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Comparative Study
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20854703

Citation

Gibson, Rosalind S., et al. "Higher Risk of Zinc Deficiency in New Zealand Pacific School Children Compared With Their Māori and European Counterparts: a New Zealand National Survey." The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 105, no. 3, 2011, pp. 436-46.
Gibson RS, Bailey KB, Parnell WR, et al. Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Māori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(3):436-46.
Gibson, R. S., Bailey, K. B., Parnell, W. R., Wilson, N., & Ferguson, E. L. (2011). Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Māori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey. The British Journal of Nutrition, 105(3), 436-46. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510003569
Gibson RS, et al. Higher Risk of Zinc Deficiency in New Zealand Pacific School Children Compared With Their Māori and European Counterparts: a New Zealand National Survey. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(3):436-46. PubMed PMID: 20854703.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Higher risk of zinc deficiency in New Zealand Pacific school children compared with their Māori and European counterparts: a New Zealand national survey. AU - Gibson,Rosalind S, AU - Bailey,Karl B, AU - Parnell,Winsome R, AU - Wilson,Noela, AU - Ferguson,Elaine L, Y1 - 2010/09/21/ PY - 2010/9/22/entrez PY - 2010/9/22/pubmed PY - 2011/2/24/medline SP - 436 EP - 46 JF - The British journal of nutrition JO - Br J Nutr VL - 105 IS - 3 N2 - Few multi-ethnic national surveys have examined Zn nutriture, despite its importance for optimal growth and development during childhood. We assessed the Zn status of urban and semi-urban children aged 5-15 years from three ethnic groups in New Zealand (NZ) in the 2002 Children's National Nutrition Survey and investigated the factors predisposing them to Zn deficiency. In a 10-month cross-sectional survey, Pacific and Māori children were over-sampled permitting ethnic-specific analyses. Anthropometry, serum Zn and Zn intakes via 24 h recalls were measured. Anthropometric z scores were highest in Pacific children. Overall, mean adjusted serum Zn at 11 years was for males and females, respectively: 11·9 (95% CI 11·5, 12·3) and 12·5 (95% CI 12·0, 12·9) μmol/l in NZ European and Other (NZEO) children (n 395); 11·9 (95% CI 11·4, 12·4) and 12·0 (95% CI 11·4, 12·5) μmol/l in Māori children (n 379); and 11·5 (95% CI 11·1, 11·9) and 11·4 (95% CI 11·1, 11·8) μmol/l in Pacific children (n 589). The predictors of serum Zn were age, serum Se and sex for NZEO children; serum Se and age for Pacific children; and none for Māori children. Pacific children had the highest prevalence of low serum Zn (21 (95% CI 11, 30) %), followed by Māori children (16 (95% CI 12, 20) %) and NZEO children (15 (95% CI 9, 21) %). Prevalence of inadequate Zn intakes, although low, reached 8% for Pacific children who had the lowest Zn intake/kg body weight. Pacific boys but not girls with low serum Zn had a lower mean height-for-age z-score (P < 0·007) than those with normal serum Zn. We conclude that the biochemical risk of Zn deficiency in Pacific children indicates a public health problem. However, a lack of concordance with the risk of dietary Zn inadequacy suggests the need for better defined cut-offs in children. SN - 1475-2662 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20854703/Higher_risk_of_zinc_deficiency_in_New_Zealand_Pacific_school_children_compared_with_their_Māori_and_European_counterparts:_a_New_Zealand_national_survey_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0007114510003569/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -