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Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: possible underlying mechanisms.

Abstract

Recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD), reduced risk of AD, and decreased mortality in AD patients. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macronutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. At present, epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (particularly, n-3 PUFA), and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Light to moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and AD, while for vascular dementia, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes, the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect. Finally, the limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally support a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia, and AD. We reviewed evidence on the possible mechanisms underlying the suggested protective role of MeDi against age-related changes in cognitive function, predementia syndromes, and dementia, examining the possible role of macronutrients and food nutrients of the MeDi and their nutraceutical properties in modulating the risk of cognitive decline. Although vascular variables are likely to be in the causal pathway between MeDi and dementia syndromes and should be considered as possible mediators, other nonvascular biological mechanisms (i.e., metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory) may be invoked to explain the complex epidemiological association between MeDi and cognitive decline.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Geriatrics, Center for Aging Brain, Memory Unit, University of Bari, Bari, Italy. vfrisardi@yahoo.com

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Cognition Disorders
    Dementia
    Diet, Mediterranean
    Dietary Supplements
    Humans

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20858954

    Citation

    Frisardi, Vincenza, et al. "Nutraceutical Properties of Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Decline: Possible Underlying Mechanisms." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, vol. 22, no. 3, 2010, pp. 715-40.
    Frisardi V, Panza F, Seripa D, et al. Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: possible underlying mechanisms. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22(3):715-40.
    Frisardi, V., Panza, F., Seripa, D., Imbimbo, B. P., Vendemiale, G., Pilotto, A., & Solfrizzi, V. (2010). Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: possible underlying mechanisms. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease : JAD, 22(3), pp. 715-40. doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-100942.
    Frisardi V, et al. Nutraceutical Properties of Mediterranean Diet and Cognitive Decline: Possible Underlying Mechanisms. J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;22(3):715-40. PubMed PMID: 20858954.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Nutraceutical properties of Mediterranean diet and cognitive decline: possible underlying mechanisms. AU - Frisardi,Vincenza, AU - Panza,Francesco, AU - Seripa,Davide, AU - Imbimbo,Bruno P, AU - Vendemiale,Gianluigi, AU - Pilotto,Alberto, AU - Solfrizzi,Vincenzo, PY - 2010/9/23/entrez PY - 2010/9/23/pubmed PY - 2011/6/10/medline SP - 715 EP - 40 JF - Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD JO - J. Alzheimers Dis. VL - 22 IS - 3 N2 - Recent prospective studies provided evidence that higher adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet could be associated with slower cognitive decline, reduced risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD), reduced risk of AD, and decreased mortality in AD patients. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) combines several foods, micro- and macronutrients already separately proposed as potential protective factors against dementia and predementia syndromes. At present, epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between fish consumption, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (particularly, n-3 PUFA), and reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Light to moderate alcohol use may be associated with a reduced risk of incident dementia and AD, while for vascular dementia, cognitive decline, and predementia syndromes, the current evidence is only suggestive of a protective effect. Finally, the limited epidemiological evidence available on fruit and vegetable consumption and cognition generally support a protective role of these macronutrients against cognitive decline, dementia, and AD. We reviewed evidence on the possible mechanisms underlying the suggested protective role of MeDi against age-related changes in cognitive function, predementia syndromes, and dementia, examining the possible role of macronutrients and food nutrients of the MeDi and their nutraceutical properties in modulating the risk of cognitive decline. Although vascular variables are likely to be in the causal pathway between MeDi and dementia syndromes and should be considered as possible mediators, other nonvascular biological mechanisms (i.e., metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory) may be invoked to explain the complex epidemiological association between MeDi and cognitive decline. SN - 1875-8908 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20858954/Nutraceutical_properties_of_Mediterranean_diet_and_cognitive_decline:_possible_underlying_mechanisms_ L2 - https://content.iospress.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.3233/JAD-2010-100942 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -