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Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Nov; 92(5):1040-51.AJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated.

OBJECTIVE

The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs.

DESIGN

This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated.

RESULTS

Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters.

CONCLUSIONS

Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Medicine Health Policy and Practice, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom. a.welch@uea.ac.ukNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20861171

Citation

Welch, Ailsa A., et al. "Dietary Intake and Status of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Population of Fish-eating and Non-fish-eating Meat-eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans and the Product-precursor Ratio [corrected] of Α-linolenic Acid to Long-chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results From the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 92, no. 5, 2010, pp. 1040-51.
Welch AA, Shakya-Shrestha S, Lentjes MA, et al. Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1040-51.
Welch, A. A., Shakya-Shrestha, S., Lentjes, M. A., Wareham, N. J., & Khaw, K. T. (2010). Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 92(5), 1040-51. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29457
Welch AA, et al. Dietary Intake and Status of N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Population of Fish-eating and Non-fish-eating Meat-eaters, Vegetarians, and Vegans and the Product-precursor Ratio [corrected] of Α-linolenic Acid to Long-chain N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Results From the EPIC-Norfolk Cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(5):1040-51. PubMed PMID: 20861171.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary intake and status of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a population of fish-eating and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of α-linolenic acid to long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort. AU - Welch,Ailsa A, AU - Shakya-Shrestha,Subodha, AU - Lentjes,Marleen A H, AU - Wareham,Nicholas J, AU - Khaw,Kay-Tee, Y1 - 2010/09/22/ PY - 2010/9/24/entrez PY - 2010/9/24/pubmed PY - 2010/11/10/medline SP - 1040 EP - 51 JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am J Clin Nutr VL - 92 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND: Intakes of n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important for health. Because fish is the major source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), non-fish-eaters may have suboptimal n-3 PUFA status, although the importance of the conversion of plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA is debated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine intakes, food sources, and status of n-3 PUFAs according to dietary habit (fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans) and estimated conversion between dietary ALA and circulating long-chain n-3 PUFAs. DESIGN: This study included 14,422 men and women aged 39-78 y from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk cohort with 7-d diary data and a substudy in 4902 individuals with plasma phospholipid fatty acid measures. Intakes and status of n-3 PUFAs were measured, and the product-precursor ratio [corrected] of ALA to circulating n-3 PUFAs was calculated. RESULTS: Most of the dietary intake of EPA and DHA was supplied by fish; however, meat was the major source in meat-eaters, and spreading fats, soups, and sauces were the major sources in vegetarians. Total n-3 PUFA intakes in non-fish-eaters were 57-80% of those in fish-eaters, but status differences were considerably smaller [corrected]. The estimated product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in women than in men and greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial differences in intakes and in sources of n-3 PUFAs existed between the dietary-habit groups, but the differences in status were smaller than expected, possibly because the product-precursor ratio [corrected] was greater in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, potentially indicating increased estimated conversion of ALA. If intervention studies were to confirm these findings, it could have implications for fish requirements. SN - 1938-3207 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20861171/Dietary_intake_and_status_of_n_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids_in_a_population_of_fish_eating_and_non_fish_eating_meat_eaters_vegetarians_and_vegans_and_the_product_precursor_ratio_[corrected]_of_α_linolenic_acid_to_long_chain_n_3_polyunsaturated_fatty_acids:_results_from_the_EPIC_Norfolk_cohort_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/ajcn.2010.29457 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -