Sheep and goat immune responses to nose bot infestation: a review.Med Vet Entomol. 2011 Jun; 25(2):117-25.MV
Oestrus ovis L. (Diptera: Oestridae) is a cosmopolitan agent of myiasis in sheep and goats. The parasitic phase begins after adult females deposit first-stage larvae (L1) into the nostrils of hosts; these larvae develop into L2 and L3 in the nasal and sinus horn cavities. Sneezing and nasal discharges are the major clinical signs in infected animals. The pathogenesis of O. ovis infection is caused by: (a) the trauma resulting from the mechanical action of spines and hooks during larval movement on mucosal membranes, and, more importantly, (b) an allergenic reaction provoked by molecules excreted/secreted by larvae, of which salivary antigens are those mainly recognized by the host's immune system. The recruitment of immune reactive cells increases gradually from the nasal to sinus cavities in infected hosts. Mast cells, eosinophils, macrophages and lymphocytes are always more numerous in infected than non-infected animals. Humoral (antibody) systemic response of immunoglobulin G (IgG) usually reaches seroconversion 2-4 weeks post-first infection and the highest levels are observed during the development of L2 and L3 larvae. Local antibody responses include specific IgG, which has been found to negatively correlate with larval survival and development. Hypersensitivity reaction, immunomodulation, immunization trials and mixed infections of O. ovis and helminths are discussed.