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Outdoor work and risk for Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Sunlight is the main contributor to vitamin D in humans. Since inadequate levels of vitamin D have been linked to increased risks for neurodegenerative diseases, we examined whether outdoor work is associated with a reduced risk for Parkinson's disease in a population-based case-control study of Danish men.

METHODS

We identified 3819 men with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in the period 1995-2006 in the Danish National Hospital Register and selected 19,282 age- and sex-matched population controls at random from the Central Population Register. Information on work history was ascertained from the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the Central Population Register. Based on trade grouping codes and job titles, we evaluated the extent of outdoor work of study subjects as a proxy of exposure to sunlight.

RESULTS

Relying on trade grouping codes, we estimated ORs for study subjects with moderate, frequent and maximal outdoor work compared with exclusive indoor work of 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.02), 0.86 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.82), respectively, for Parkinson's disease. Reduced risks were also found for Parkinson's disease among outdoor workers based on study subjects' job titles.

CONCLUSIONS

Our findings suggest that men working outdoors have a lower risk for Parkinson's disease. Further studies of measured vitamin D levels in outdoor workers are warranted to clarify a potential inverse association between vitamin D and the risk for Parkinson's disease.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. kenborg@cancer.dk

    , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Denmark
    Epidemiologic Methods
    Humans
    Lip Neoplasms
    Lung Neoplasms
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Occupational Exposure
    Occupations
    Parkinson Disease
    Social Class
    Sunlight

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20884793

    Citation

    Kenborg, Line, et al. "Outdoor Work and Risk for Parkinson's Disease: a Population-based Case-control Study." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol. 68, no. 4, 2011, pp. 273-8.
    Kenborg L, Lassen CF, Ritz B, et al. Outdoor work and risk for Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(4):273-8.
    Kenborg, L., Lassen, C. F., Ritz, B., Schernhammer, E. S., Hansen, J., Gatto, N. M., & Olsen, J. H. (2011). Outdoor work and risk for Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 68(4), pp. 273-8. doi:10.1136/oem.2010.057448.
    Kenborg L, et al. Outdoor Work and Risk for Parkinson's Disease: a Population-based Case-control Study. Occup Environ Med. 2011;68(4):273-8. PubMed PMID: 20884793.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Outdoor work and risk for Parkinson's disease: a population-based case-control study. AU - Kenborg,Line, AU - Lassen,Christina F, AU - Ritz,Beate, AU - Schernhammer,Eva S, AU - Hansen,Johnni, AU - Gatto,Nicole M, AU - Olsen,Jørgen H, Y1 - 2010/09/30/ PY - 2010/10/2/entrez PY - 2010/10/5/pubmed PY - 2011/7/19/medline SP - 273 EP - 8 JF - Occupational and environmental medicine JO - Occup Environ Med VL - 68 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Sunlight is the main contributor to vitamin D in humans. Since inadequate levels of vitamin D have been linked to increased risks for neurodegenerative diseases, we examined whether outdoor work is associated with a reduced risk for Parkinson's disease in a population-based case-control study of Danish men. METHODS: We identified 3819 men with a primary diagnosis of Parkinson's disease in the period 1995-2006 in the Danish National Hospital Register and selected 19,282 age- and sex-matched population controls at random from the Central Population Register. Information on work history was ascertained from the Danish Supplementary Pension Fund and the Central Population Register. Based on trade grouping codes and job titles, we evaluated the extent of outdoor work of study subjects as a proxy of exposure to sunlight. RESULTS: Relying on trade grouping codes, we estimated ORs for study subjects with moderate, frequent and maximal outdoor work compared with exclusive indoor work of 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.02), 0.86 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.99) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.82), respectively, for Parkinson's disease. Reduced risks were also found for Parkinson's disease among outdoor workers based on study subjects' job titles. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that men working outdoors have a lower risk for Parkinson's disease. Further studies of measured vitamin D levels in outdoor workers are warranted to clarify a potential inverse association between vitamin D and the risk for Parkinson's disease. SN - 1470-7926 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20884793/Outdoor_work_and_risk_for_Parkinson's_disease:_a_population_based_case_control_study_ L2 - http://oem.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=20884793 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -