One-chip biosensor for simultaneous disease marker/calibration substance measurement in human urine by electrochemical surface plasmon resonance method.Biosens Bioelectron. 2010 Dec 15; 26(4):1536-42.BB
We have developed a miniaturized electrochemical surface plasmon resonance biosensor for measuring two biomolecules that have very different molecular sizes, one is transferrin (MW=75 kDa) as a disease marker protein, the other is creatinine (MW=113) as a calibration marker for the accurate measurement of human urinary samples. The sensor has a PDMS based microchannel that is 2 mm wide and 20 μm deep. Two gold films were integrated in the microchannel; one was modified with anti-transferrin antibody for immuno-reaction, and the other was modified with osmium-poly-vinylpyridine wired horseradish peroxidase (Os-gel-HRP). We further immobilized a tri-enzyme layer of creatininase, creatinase and sarcosine oxidase in order to measure creatinine by converting it to hydrogen peroxide in the upstream channel. We measured the transferrin concentration from the refractive index change involved in an immuno-complex formation, and we were simultaneously able to measure creatinine by employing the refractive index change in the Os-gel-HRP caused by oxidation with the hydrogen peroxide produced from creatinine by the tri-enzyme. The effects of ascorbic acid and uric acid in urine samples were sufficiently eliminated by adding ascorbate oxidase and uricase to the urine samples during sampling. We were able to measure two analyte concentrations within 15 min by one simple injection of 50 μL of diluted human urine into our sensor. The detectable transferrin and creatinine ranges were 20 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, and 10 μM to 10 mM, respectively, which are sufficient levels for clinical tests. Finally, we compared the results obtained using our sensor with those obtained with a conventional immunoassay and the Jaffe method. We obtained a similar trend that can reduce the fluctuation in the urinary transferrin concentration from three different samples by calibrating the creatinine concentration.