Apocynum venetum leaf extract protects rat cortical neurons from injury induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in vitro.Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010 Sep; 88(9):907-17.CJ
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE) on an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and further explored the possible mechanisms underlying protection. Cell injury was assessed by morphological examination using phase-contrast microscopy and quantified by measuring the amount of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage; cell viability was measured by XTT reduction. Neuronal apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and electron microscopy was used to study morphological changes of neurons. Caspase-3, -8, and -9 activation and Bcl-2/Bax protein expression were determined by Western blot analysis. We report that treatment with AVLE (5 and 50 µg/mL) effectively reduced neuronal cell death and relieved cell injury induced by OGD. Moreover, AVLE decreased the percentage of apoptotic neurons, relieved neuronal morphological damage, suppressed overexpression of active caspase-3 and -8 and Bax, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. These findings indicate that AVLE protects against OGD-induced injury by inhibiting apoptosis in rat cortical neurons by down-regulating caspase-3 activation and modulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio.