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Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic.
Proc Biol Sci. 2011 Apr 07; 278(1708):1107-13.PB

Abstract

The ascent of dinosaurs in the Triassic is an exemplary evolutionary radiation, but the earliest phase of dinosaur history remains poorly understood. Body fossils of close dinosaur relatives are rare, but indicate that the dinosaur stem lineage (Dinosauromorpha) originated by the latest Anisian (ca 242-244 Ma). Here, we report footprints from the Early-Middle Triassic of Poland, stratigraphically well constrained and identified using a conservative synapomorphy-based approach, which shifts the origin of the dinosaur stem lineage back to the Early Olenekian (ca 249-251 Ma), approximately 5-9 Myr earlier than indicated by body fossils, earlier than demonstrated by previous footprint records, and just a few million years after the Permian/Triassic mass extinction (252.3 Ma). Dinosauromorph tracks are rare in all Polish assemblages, suggesting that these animals were minor faunal components. The oldest tracks are quadrupedal, a morphology uncommon among the earliest dinosauromorph body fossils, but bipedality and moderately large body size had arisen by the Early Anisian (ca 246 Ma). Integrating trace fossils and body fossils demonstrates that the rise of dinosaurs was a drawn-out affair, perhaps initiated during recovery from the Permo-Triassic extinction.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024, USA. sbrusatte@amnh.orgNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20926435

Citation

Brusatte, Stephen L., et al. "Footprints Pull Origin and Diversification of Dinosaur Stem Lineage Deep Into Early Triassic." Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol. 278, no. 1708, 2011, pp. 1107-13.
Brusatte SL, Niedźwiedzki G, Butler RJ. Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic. Proc Biol Sci. 2011;278(1708):1107-13.
Brusatte, S. L., Niedźwiedzki, G., & Butler, R. J. (2011). Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 278(1708), 1107-13. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1746
Brusatte SL, Niedźwiedzki G, Butler RJ. Footprints Pull Origin and Diversification of Dinosaur Stem Lineage Deep Into Early Triassic. Proc Biol Sci. 2011 Apr 7;278(1708):1107-13. PubMed PMID: 20926435.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Footprints pull origin and diversification of dinosaur stem lineage deep into Early Triassic. AU - Brusatte,Stephen L, AU - Niedźwiedzki,Grzegorz, AU - Butler,Richard J, Y1 - 2010/10/06/ PY - 2010/10/8/entrez PY - 2010/10/12/pubmed PY - 2011/6/10/medline SP - 1107 EP - 13 JF - Proceedings. Biological sciences JO - Proc Biol Sci VL - 278 IS - 1708 N2 - The ascent of dinosaurs in the Triassic is an exemplary evolutionary radiation, but the earliest phase of dinosaur history remains poorly understood. Body fossils of close dinosaur relatives are rare, but indicate that the dinosaur stem lineage (Dinosauromorpha) originated by the latest Anisian (ca 242-244 Ma). Here, we report footprints from the Early-Middle Triassic of Poland, stratigraphically well constrained and identified using a conservative synapomorphy-based approach, which shifts the origin of the dinosaur stem lineage back to the Early Olenekian (ca 249-251 Ma), approximately 5-9 Myr earlier than indicated by body fossils, earlier than demonstrated by previous footprint records, and just a few million years after the Permian/Triassic mass extinction (252.3 Ma). Dinosauromorph tracks are rare in all Polish assemblages, suggesting that these animals were minor faunal components. The oldest tracks are quadrupedal, a morphology uncommon among the earliest dinosauromorph body fossils, but bipedality and moderately large body size had arisen by the Early Anisian (ca 246 Ma). Integrating trace fossils and body fossils demonstrates that the rise of dinosaurs was a drawn-out affair, perhaps initiated during recovery from the Permo-Triassic extinction. SN - 1471-2954 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20926435/Footprints_pull_origin_and_diversification_of_dinosaur_stem_lineage_deep_into_Early_Triassic_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2010.1746?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -