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Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana.
Tob Control. 2011 Mar; 20(2):107-11.TC

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a global public health problem. Ghana currently has no legislation to prevent smoking in public places. To provide data on SHS levels in hospitality venues in Ghana the authors measured (1) airborne particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and nicotine concentrations and (2) hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees. Quantifying SHS exposure will provide evidence needed to develop tobacco control legislation.

METHOD

PM(2.5) was measured for 30 min in 75 smoking and 13 non-smoking venues. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 8 smoking and 2 non-smoking venues. Additionally, 63 non-smoking employees provided hair samples for nicotine analysis.

RESULT

Compared to non-smoking venues, smoking venues had markedly elevated PM(2.5) (median 553 [IQR 259-1038] vs 16.0 [14.0-17.0]μg/m(3)) and air nicotine (1.83 [0.91-4.25] vs 0.03 [0.02-0.04]μg/m(3)) concentrations. Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), indoor air PM(2.5) concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63).

CONCLUSION

SHS levels were unacceptably high in public places in Ghana where smoking is allowed, despite a relatively low-smoking prevalence in the country. This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa. Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans. Implementing a comprehensive smoke-free legislation that protects workers and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke is urgently needed in Ghana.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20930057

Citation

Agbenyikey, Wilfred, et al. "Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Selected Public Places (PM2.5 and Air Nicotine) and Non-smoking Employees (hair Nicotine) in Ghana." Tobacco Control, vol. 20, no. 2, 2011, pp. 107-11.
Agbenyikey W, Wellington E, Gyapong J, et al. Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana. Tob Control. 2011;20(2):107-11.
Agbenyikey, W., Wellington, E., Gyapong, J., Travers, M. J., Breysse, P. N., McCarty, K. M., & Navas-Acien, A. (2011). Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana. Tobacco Control, 20(2), 107-11. https://doi.org/10.1136/tc.2010.036012
Agbenyikey W, et al. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Selected Public Places (PM2.5 and Air Nicotine) and Non-smoking Employees (hair Nicotine) in Ghana. Tob Control. 2011;20(2):107-11. PubMed PMID: 20930057.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in selected public places (PM2.5 and air nicotine) and non-smoking employees (hair nicotine) in Ghana. AU - Agbenyikey,Wilfred, AU - Wellington,Edith, AU - Gyapong,John, AU - Travers,Mark J, AU - Breysse,Patrick N, AU - McCarty,Kathleen M, AU - Navas-Acien,Ana, Y1 - 2010/10/07/ PY - 2010/10/9/entrez PY - 2010/10/12/pubmed PY - 2011/8/6/medline SP - 107 EP - 11 JF - Tobacco control JO - Tob Control VL - 20 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: Secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure is a global public health problem. Ghana currently has no legislation to prevent smoking in public places. To provide data on SHS levels in hospitality venues in Ghana the authors measured (1) airborne particulate matter <2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) and nicotine concentrations and (2) hair nicotine concentrations in non-smoking employees. Quantifying SHS exposure will provide evidence needed to develop tobacco control legislation. METHOD: PM(2.5) was measured for 30 min in 75 smoking and 13 non-smoking venues. Air nicotine concentrations were measured for 7 days in 8 smoking and 2 non-smoking venues. Additionally, 63 non-smoking employees provided hair samples for nicotine analysis. RESULT: Compared to non-smoking venues, smoking venues had markedly elevated PM(2.5) (median 553 [IQR 259-1038] vs 16.0 [14.0-17.0]μg/m(3)) and air nicotine (1.83 [0.91-4.25] vs 0.03 [0.02-0.04]μg/m(3)) concentrations. Hair nicotine concentrations were also higher in non-smoking employees working in smoking venues (median 2.49 [0.46-6.84] ng/mg) compared to those working in non-smoking venues (median 0.16 [0.08-0.79]ng/mg). Hair nicotine concentrations correlated with self-reported hours of SHS exposure (r=0.35), indoor air PM(2.5) concentrations (r=0.47) and air nicotine concentrations (r=0.63). CONCLUSION: SHS levels were unacceptably high in public places in Ghana where smoking is allowed, despite a relatively low-smoking prevalence in the country. This is one of the first studies to ascertain SHS and hair nicotine in Africa. Levels were comparable to those measured in American, Asian and European countries without or before smoking bans. Implementing a comprehensive smoke-free legislation that protects workers and customers from exposure to secondhand smoke is urgently needed in Ghana. SN - 1468-3318 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20930057/Secondhand_tobacco_smoke_exposure_in_selected_public_places__PM2_5_and_air_nicotine__and_non_smoking_employees__hair_nicotine__in_Ghana_ L2 - https://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/lookup/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=20930057 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -