Cutaneous disorders in uremic patients on hemodialysis: an Egyptian case-controlled study.Int J Dermatol 2010; 49(9):1024-30IJ
We studied the prevalence of mucocutaneous disorders in uremic adults and children on hemodialysis (HD) vs. controls, in Egypt.
A total of 206 Egyptians with uremia (163 adults and 43 children) undergoing HD, and 199 healthy controls (161 adults and 38 children), were examined for mucocutaneous abnormalities.
Specific cutaneous diseases associated with renal insufficiency were found in five adults, including acquired perforating dermatosis and pseudo-porphyria. Non-specific abnormalities included xerosis (54%), pallor (42.2%), nail changes (34.9%), hair changes (34%), pruritus (32%), hyper-pigmentation (22.2%), coated tongue (14.1%), ecchymosis (1.5%), and gingival hypertrophy (1.5%). Disorders found significantly more often in uremics than controls included pallor, nail changes, hair changes, pruritus, hyperpigmentation and coated tongue in adults (P < 0.05), and nail changes, hair changes, and hyper-pigmentation in children (P < 0.05). The prevalence of each mucocutaneous abnormality was similar in uremic adults and children except for pallor [more common in adults (P = 0.001)], and hyper-pigmentation [more common in children (P = 0.003)]. A greater number of hepatitis C virus-positive than -negative adult uremics had hyper-pigmentation (P < 0.05), and more diabetic uremics had pruritus than did non-diabetics (P < 0.05).
Mucocutaneous disorders occur in adults and children with uremia, some of which are specific associations with the underlying renal disease. Occurrence of some of the non-specific abnormalities, such as xerosis, ecchymosis, and gingival hypertrophy, may be coincidental or associated with factors other than renal insufficiency.