Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future challenges.
Life Sci 2011; 88(21-22):917-21LS

Abstract

HIV prevalence continues to be high among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2007 the HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was >20% in the southern African counties of Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa and Lesotho. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can occur in-utero, intrapartum or postnatally. Without any preventive measure the overall rate of the MTCT of HIV in breastfeeding women could be 25-45%. Prior to the discovery of successful antiretroviral interventions to prevent the MTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (before 1999), innovative research determined the magnitude of the problem, the impact of the HIV epidemic on mothers and children, and the main risk factors associated with MTCT. Non-antiretroviral interventions conducted before 1999 such as washing the birth canal with antiseptics and antenatal supplementation with vitamin A did not reduce the MTCT of HIV. However, during the period 1999 to present, major successes were made in the prevention of the MTCT of HIV. The use of single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis to the mother and infant reduced the MTCT of HIV to ~12%. Subsequently, longer prophylaxis and combined antiretroviral regimens were shown to be highly effective and very low HIV transmission rates comparable to those in developed countries were reported in some clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The future is promising but challenges remain. The current successful intervention modalities are entirely dependent on antiretrovirals and breastfeeding continues to be vital for the survival of the child in the African setting. Reviewing past and present achievements assists in focusing future research and development of prevention programs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States. ttaha@jhsph.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20933522

Citation

Taha, Taha E.. "Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: Past, Present and Future Challenges." Life Sciences, vol. 88, no. 21-22, 2011, pp. 917-21.
Taha TE. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future challenges. Life Sci. 2011;88(21-22):917-21.
Taha, T. E. (2011). Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future challenges. Life Sciences, 88(21-22), pp. 917-21. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2010.09.031.
Taha TE. Mother-to-child Transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: Past, Present and Future Challenges. Life Sci. 2011 May 23;88(21-22):917-21. PubMed PMID: 20933522.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in sub-Saharan Africa: past, present and future challenges. A1 - Taha,Taha E, Y1 - 2010/10/08/ PY - 2010/06/29/received PY - 2010/09/01/revised PY - 2010/09/18/accepted PY - 2010/10/12/entrez PY - 2010/10/12/pubmed PY - 2011/7/30/medline SP - 917 EP - 21 JF - Life sciences JO - Life Sci. VL - 88 IS - 21-22 N2 - HIV prevalence continues to be high among women of reproductive age in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2007 the HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics was >20% in the southern African counties of Botswana, Swaziland, South Africa and Lesotho. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can occur in-utero, intrapartum or postnatally. Without any preventive measure the overall rate of the MTCT of HIV in breastfeeding women could be 25-45%. Prior to the discovery of successful antiretroviral interventions to prevent the MTCT of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa (before 1999), innovative research determined the magnitude of the problem, the impact of the HIV epidemic on mothers and children, and the main risk factors associated with MTCT. Non-antiretroviral interventions conducted before 1999 such as washing the birth canal with antiseptics and antenatal supplementation with vitamin A did not reduce the MTCT of HIV. However, during the period 1999 to present, major successes were made in the prevention of the MTCT of HIV. The use of single-dose nevirapine prophylaxis to the mother and infant reduced the MTCT of HIV to ~12%. Subsequently, longer prophylaxis and combined antiretroviral regimens were shown to be highly effective and very low HIV transmission rates comparable to those in developed countries were reported in some clinical trial settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The future is promising but challenges remain. The current successful intervention modalities are entirely dependent on antiretrovirals and breastfeeding continues to be vital for the survival of the child in the African setting. Reviewing past and present achievements assists in focusing future research and development of prevention programs. SN - 1879-0631 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20933522/Mother_to_child_transmission_of_HIV_1_in_sub_Saharan_Africa:_past_present_and_future_challenges_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0024-3205(10)00435-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -