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Economic evaluation of cinacalcet in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in Italy.
Pharmacoeconomics. 2010; 28(11):1041-54.P

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Imbalanced levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and fracture in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet can attenuate the mineral and hormonal imbalances characteristic of SHPT and may improve outcomes in such patients. Here we describe a cost-utility analysis of cinacalcet for SHPT in dialysis patients in Italy.

METHODS

We developed a probabilistic Markov model to simulate the effect of cinacalcet on Ca, P and PTH levels in dialysis patients with SHPT, based on data from a European, multicentre, open-label study. The model then correlated these levels with mortality and morbidity (CV events, fractures and parathyroidectomies) using data from the literature, and incorporated Italian data for dialysis, drugs and management of events according to the national cost structure. The simulation horizon was patient lifetime; simulated treatment alternatives were standard treatment (mainly vitamin D sterols and phosphate binders) and cinacalcet + standard treatment. A 3.5% discount rate was applied to life expectancy (LE), quality-adjusted life-expectancy (QALE), costs and times below the upper ranges (time in range [TiR]) recommended by the National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality initiative for PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Utilities were derived from the published literature and took into account dialysis and the impairment of quality of life due to the occurrence of CV events and fractures. Costs were evaluated in year 2009 values from the perspective of the Italian National Healthcare System.

RESULTS

Baseline results were calculated with 10,000 iterations. Compared with standard treatment alone, addition of cinacalcet was associated with a mean (SD) increase in TiR of 5.26 (6.59), 3.63 (6.87), 1.70 (6.66) and 2.68 (5.55) discounted patient-years for PTH, Ca and P, respectively, and combined PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Cinacalcet increased LE by 1.20 (3.75) life-years (LYs) and QALE by 0.89 (2.59) QALYs. When including the cost for dialysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €50,012 per LY and €67,361 per QALY, while, if dialysis costs were not included, the ICER was €23,473 per LY and €31,616 per QALY.

CONCLUSIONS

The results suggest that cinacalcet treatment could be considered cost effective for treatment of SHPT in the Italian healthcare setting, but further investigations are needed to confirm these findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Turin, Turin, Italy.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20936886

Citation

Eandi, Mario, et al. "Economic Evaluation of Cinacalcet in the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Italy." PharmacoEconomics, vol. 28, no. 11, 2010, pp. 1041-54.
Eandi M, Pradelli L, Iannazzo S, et al. Economic evaluation of cinacalcet in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in Italy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2010;28(11):1041-54.
Eandi, M., Pradelli, L., Iannazzo, S., Chiroli, S., & Pontoriero, G. (2010). Economic evaluation of cinacalcet in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in Italy. PharmacoEconomics, 28(11), 1041-54. https://doi.org/10.2165/11538600-000000000-00000
Eandi M, et al. Economic Evaluation of Cinacalcet in the Treatment of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Italy. Pharmacoeconomics. 2010;28(11):1041-54. PubMed PMID: 20936886.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Economic evaluation of cinacalcet in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in Italy. AU - Eandi,Mario, AU - Pradelli,Lorenzo, AU - Iannazzo,Sergio, AU - Chiroli,Silvia, AU - Pontoriero,Giuseppe, PY - 2010/10/13/entrez PY - 2010/10/13/pubmed PY - 2011/10/13/medline SP - 1041 EP - 54 JF - PharmacoEconomics JO - Pharmacoeconomics VL - 28 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Imbalanced levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), serum calcium (Ca) and phosphorous (P) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) death and fracture in dialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). The calcimimetic agent cinacalcet can attenuate the mineral and hormonal imbalances characteristic of SHPT and may improve outcomes in such patients. Here we describe a cost-utility analysis of cinacalcet for SHPT in dialysis patients in Italy. METHODS: We developed a probabilistic Markov model to simulate the effect of cinacalcet on Ca, P and PTH levels in dialysis patients with SHPT, based on data from a European, multicentre, open-label study. The model then correlated these levels with mortality and morbidity (CV events, fractures and parathyroidectomies) using data from the literature, and incorporated Italian data for dialysis, drugs and management of events according to the national cost structure. The simulation horizon was patient lifetime; simulated treatment alternatives were standard treatment (mainly vitamin D sterols and phosphate binders) and cinacalcet + standard treatment. A 3.5% discount rate was applied to life expectancy (LE), quality-adjusted life-expectancy (QALE), costs and times below the upper ranges (time in range [TiR]) recommended by the National Kidney Foundation - Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality initiative for PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Utilities were derived from the published literature and took into account dialysis and the impairment of quality of life due to the occurrence of CV events and fractures. Costs were evaluated in year 2009 values from the perspective of the Italian National Healthcare System. RESULTS: Baseline results were calculated with 10,000 iterations. Compared with standard treatment alone, addition of cinacalcet was associated with a mean (SD) increase in TiR of 5.26 (6.59), 3.63 (6.87), 1.70 (6.66) and 2.68 (5.55) discounted patient-years for PTH, Ca and P, respectively, and combined PTH, Ca, P and Ca × P. Cinacalcet increased LE by 1.20 (3.75) life-years (LYs) and QALE by 0.89 (2.59) QALYs. When including the cost for dialysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was €50,012 per LY and €67,361 per QALY, while, if dialysis costs were not included, the ICER was €23,473 per LY and €31,616 per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that cinacalcet treatment could be considered cost effective for treatment of SHPT in the Italian healthcare setting, but further investigations are needed to confirm these findings. SN - 1179-2027 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20936886/Economic_evaluation_of_cinacalcet_in_the_treatment_of_secondary_hyperparathyroidism_in_Italy_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11538600-000000000-00000 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -