Retinoic acid receptor-mediated signaling protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia induced apoptosis: role of the renin-angiotensin system.J Cell Physiol 2011; 226(5):1292-307JC
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and heart failure. Activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) has an anti-diabetic effect; but, a role in diabetic cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Using neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes, we determined the role of RAR and RXR in hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis and expression of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) components. Decreased nuclear expression of RARα and RXRα, activation of apoptotic signaling and cell apoptosis was observed in high glucose (HG) treated neonatal and adult cardiomyocytes and diabetic hearts in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. HG-induced apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was prevented by both RAR and RXR agonists. Silencing expression of RARα and RXRα, by small interference RNA, promoted apoptosis under normal conditions and significantly enhanced HG-induced apoptosis, indicating that RARα and RXRα are required in regulating cell apoptotic signaling. Blocking angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT(1) R); but, not AT(2) R, attenuated HG-induced apoptosis and ROS generation. Moreover, HG induced gene expression of angiotensinogen, renin, AT(1) R, and angiotensin II (Ang II) synthesis were inhibited by RARα agonists and promoted by silencing RARα. Activation of RXRα, downregulated the expression of AT(1) R; and RXRα silencing accelerated HG induced expression of angiotensinogen and Ang II synthesis, whereas there was no significant effect on renin gene expression. These results indicate that reduction in the expression of RARα and RXRα has an important role in hyperglycemia mediated apoptosis and expression of RAS components. Activation of RAR/RXR signaling protects cardiomyocytes from hyperglycemia, by reducing oxidative stress and inhibition of the RAS.