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The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air café employees: what factors determine the level of exposure?
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2011 Feb; 24(1):35-41.JA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the service industry. In areas of the world with moderate climates, open windows and doors are assumed to provide a work environment with only marginally increased exposures to SHS.

METHODS

We measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 50 semiopen air venues in Greece during the summer. Cotinine levels from a nonsmoking employee of each of these venues were measured from a postshift urine sample.

RESULTS

In these semiopen-air venues, the mean level of indoor PM 2.5 levels were 113.5 ± 72.3 μg/m(3). The mean postshift urinary cotinine levels of nonworking workers in these venues was 15 ng/mL. PM2.5 levels were strongly correlated with urinary cotinine concentrations (Spearman's r = 0.914). Linear regression analyses indicated that when taking into account the time of the measurement, the day of the week, for each 1 cigarette/100 m(3) the indoor PM2.5 concentrations increased by 26.6 μg/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-45.7 μg/m(3), p = 0.007) and urinary cotinine levels of nonsmoking workers increased by 5.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.4 to 9.6, p = 0.034).

CONCLUSIONS

In a sample of bars and restaurants with windows and doors open, indoor PM2.5 concentrations were elevated and increased proportionately to the density of smoking. Cotinine levels of nonsmoking employees increased with indoor PM2.5 concentrations, and also with the density of smoking. Open windows and doors do not protect workers from exposure to second-hand smoke.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Laboratory of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Greece.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20961168

Citation

Karabela, Maria, et al. "The Relationship Between Venue Indoor Air Quality and Urinary Cotinine Levels Among Semiopen-air Café Employees: what Factors Determine the Level of Exposure?" Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, vol. 24, no. 1, 2011, pp. 35-41.
Karabela M, Vardavas CI, Tzatzarakis M, et al. The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air café employees: what factors determine the level of exposure? J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2011;24(1):35-41.
Karabela, M., Vardavas, C. I., Tzatzarakis, M., Tsatsakis, A., Dockery, D., Connolly, G. N., & Behrakis, P. (2011). The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air café employees: what factors determine the level of exposure? Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, 24(1), 35-41. https://doi.org/10.1089/jamp.2010.0837
Karabela M, et al. The Relationship Between Venue Indoor Air Quality and Urinary Cotinine Levels Among Semiopen-air Café Employees: what Factors Determine the Level of Exposure. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2011;24(1):35-41. PubMed PMID: 20961168.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The relationship between venue indoor air quality and urinary cotinine levels among semiopen-air café employees: what factors determine the level of exposure? AU - Karabela,Maria, AU - Vardavas,Constantine I, AU - Tzatzarakis,Manolis, AU - Tsatsakis,Aristeidis, AU - Dockery,Douglas, AU - Connolly,Gregory N, AU - Behrakis,Panagiotis, Y1 - 2010/10/20/ PY - 2010/10/22/entrez PY - 2010/10/22/pubmed PY - 2011/5/14/medline SP - 35 EP - 41 JF - Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery JO - J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv VL - 24 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is increasingly recognized as an occupational hazard to workers in the service industry. In areas of the world with moderate climates, open windows and doors are assumed to provide a work environment with only marginally increased exposures to SHS. METHODS: We measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 50 semiopen air venues in Greece during the summer. Cotinine levels from a nonsmoking employee of each of these venues were measured from a postshift urine sample. RESULTS: In these semiopen-air venues, the mean level of indoor PM 2.5 levels were 113.5 ± 72.3 μg/m(3). The mean postshift urinary cotinine levels of nonworking workers in these venues was 15 ng/mL. PM2.5 levels were strongly correlated with urinary cotinine concentrations (Spearman's r = 0.914). Linear regression analyses indicated that when taking into account the time of the measurement, the day of the week, for each 1 cigarette/100 m(3) the indoor PM2.5 concentrations increased by 26.6 μg/m(3) [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.6-45.7 μg/m(3), p = 0.007) and urinary cotinine levels of nonsmoking workers increased by 5.0 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.4 to 9.6, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: In a sample of bars and restaurants with windows and doors open, indoor PM2.5 concentrations were elevated and increased proportionately to the density of smoking. Cotinine levels of nonsmoking employees increased with indoor PM2.5 concentrations, and also with the density of smoking. Open windows and doors do not protect workers from exposure to second-hand smoke. SN - 1941-2703 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20961168/The_relationship_between_venue_indoor_air_quality_and_urinary_cotinine_levels_among_semiopen_air_café_employees:_what_factors_determine_the_level_of_exposure L2 - https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jamp.2010.0837?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -