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Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia.
Arch Intern Med 2011; 171(4):333-9AI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Smoking is a risk factor for several life-threatening diseases, but its long-term association with dementia is controversial and somewhat understudied. Our objective was to investigate the long-term association of amount of smoking in middle age on the risk of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) several decades later in a large, diverse population.

METHODS

We analyzed prospective data from a multiethnic population-based cohort of 21,123 members of a health care system who participated in a survey between 1978 and 1985. Diagnoses of dementia, AD, and VaD made in internal medicine, neurology, and neuropsychology were collected from January 1, 1994, to July 31, 2008. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between midlife smoking and risk of dementia, AD, and VaD.

RESULTS

A total of 5367 people (25.4%) were diagnosed as having dementia (including 1136 cases of AD and 416 cases of VaD) during a mean follow-up period of 23 years. Results were adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and alcohol use. Compared with nonsmokers, those smoking more than 2 packs a day had an elevated risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.65-2.78), AD (adjusted HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.63-4.03), and VaD (adjusted HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.20-6.18).

CONCLUSIONS

In this large cohort, heavy smoking in midlife was associated with a greater than 100% increase in risk of dementia, AD, and VaD more than 2 decades later. These results suggest that the brain is not immune to long-term consequences of heavy smoking.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

20975015

Citation

Rusanen, Minna, et al. "Heavy Smoking in Midlife and Long-term Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia." Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 171, no. 4, 2011, pp. 333-9.
Rusanen M, Kivipelto M, Quesenberry CP, et al. Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(4):333-9.
Rusanen, M., Kivipelto, M., Quesenberry, C. P., Zhou, J., & Whitmer, R. A. (2011). Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(4), pp. 333-9. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.393.
Rusanen M, et al. Heavy Smoking in Midlife and Long-term Risk of Alzheimer Disease and Vascular Dementia. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Feb 28;171(4):333-9. PubMed PMID: 20975015.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. AU - Rusanen,Minna, AU - Kivipelto,Miia, AU - Quesenberry,Charles P,Jr AU - Zhou,Jufen, AU - Whitmer,Rachel A, Y1 - 2010/10/25/ PY - 2010/10/27/entrez PY - 2010/10/27/pubmed PY - 2011/4/13/medline SP - 333 EP - 9 JF - Archives of internal medicine JO - Arch. Intern. Med. VL - 171 IS - 4 N2 - BACKGROUND: Smoking is a risk factor for several life-threatening diseases, but its long-term association with dementia is controversial and somewhat understudied. Our objective was to investigate the long-term association of amount of smoking in middle age on the risk of dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD) several decades later in a large, diverse population. METHODS: We analyzed prospective data from a multiethnic population-based cohort of 21,123 members of a health care system who participated in a survey between 1978 and 1985. Diagnoses of dementia, AD, and VaD made in internal medicine, neurology, and neuropsychology were collected from January 1, 1994, to July 31, 2008. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the association between midlife smoking and risk of dementia, AD, and VaD. RESULTS: A total of 5367 people (25.4%) were diagnosed as having dementia (including 1136 cases of AD and 416 cases of VaD) during a mean follow-up period of 23 years. Results were adjusted for age, sex, education, race, marital status, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and alcohol use. Compared with nonsmokers, those smoking more than 2 packs a day had an elevated risk of dementia (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.14; 95% CI, 1.65-2.78), AD (adjusted HR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.63-4.03), and VaD (adjusted HR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.20-6.18). CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort, heavy smoking in midlife was associated with a greater than 100% increase in risk of dementia, AD, and VaD more than 2 decades later. These results suggest that the brain is not immune to long-term consequences of heavy smoking. SN - 1538-3679 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20975015/Heavy_smoking_in_midlife_and_long_term_risk_of_Alzheimer_disease_and_vascular_dementia_ L2 - https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/10.1001/archinternmed.2010.393 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -