Statins in patients with chronic kidney disease: why, who and when?Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010 Nov; 11(16):2665-74.EO
IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD
Patients with end-stage renal disease are at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which is characterized by early onset and rapid progression of atherosclerosis. Some analyses of large clinical trials have revealed that statins might reduce all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preliminary studies have also suggested that they can reduce contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and the rate of loss of kidney function. However, the results concerning the efficacy and safety of statin therapy in patients with CKD, especially in those on renal replacement therapy, are still controversial.
AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW
This review contains data on the atherosclerotic risk in patients with CKD; the role of statins in the reduction of CV risk in patients with CKD; the role of CIN; the effects of statins on retarding the progression of CKD; and the efficacy of statin therapy in CKD, dialysis and renal-transplant patients. We searched using the electronic databases [MEDLINE (1966 - June 2010), EMBASE and SCOPUS (1965 - June 2010), DARE (1966 - June 2010)]. Additionally, abstracts from national and international cardiovascular meetings were studied. Where necessary, the relevant authors of these studies were contacted to obtain further data. The main data search terms were: 'statin/statins', 'dialysis', 'dyslipidemia', 'hemodialysis', 'kidney disease', 'microalbuminuria', 'clinical trials', and 'renal impairment'.
WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN
Readers will be acquainted with results of clinical trials, including the most recent ones (e.g., PLANETE I and II), and will be able to draw their own conclusions concerning the use of statins in CKD patients on the basis of the results of the studies presented and to compare them with the authors' suggestions presented in this review.