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Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

Red and processed meats could increase cancer risk through several potential mechanisms involving iron, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and N-nitroso compounds. Although there have been multiple studies of meat and colorectal cancer, other gastrointestinal malignancies are understudied.

METHODS

We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between meat, meat components, and meat cooking by-products and risk of esophageal or gastric cancer in a large cohort study. During ∼10 years of follow-up, we accrued 215 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 630 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 454 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas.

RESULTS

Red meat intake was positively associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR for the top versus bottom quintile=1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-3.01, P for trend=0.019). Individuals in the highest intake quintile of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) had an increased risk for gastric cardia cancer (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.07, P for trend=0.104). Furthermore, those in the highest quintile of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), or heme iron intake had a suggestive increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR=1.35, 95% CI: 0.97-1.89, P for trend=0.022; HR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.99-2.12, P for trend=0.463; or HR=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-2.20, P for trend=0.063, respectively). Benzo[a]pyrene, nitrate, and nitrite were not associated with esophageal or gastric cancer.

CONCLUSIONS

We found positive associations between red meat intake and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and between DiMeIQx intake and gastric cardia cancer.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA. crossa@mail.nih.gov

    , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adenocarcinoma
    Aged
    Carcinogens
    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
    Cardia
    Esophageal Neoplasms
    Feeding Behavior
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Iron
    Male
    Meat
    Middle Aged
    Mutagens
    Odds Ratio
    Prospective Studies
    Quinoxalines
    Risk Factors
    Stomach Neoplasms
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20978481

    Citation

    Cross, Amanda J., et al. "Meat Consumption and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer in a Large Prospective Study." The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 3, 2011, pp. 432-42.
    Cross AJ, Freedman ND, Ren J, et al. Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(3):432-42.
    Cross, A. J., Freedman, N. D., Ren, J., Ward, M. H., Hollenbeck, A. R., Schatzkin, A., ... Abnet, C. C. (2011). Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study. The American Journal of Gastroenterology, 106(3), pp. 432-42. doi:10.1038/ajg.2010.415.
    Cross AJ, et al. Meat Consumption and Risk of Esophageal and Gastric Cancer in a Large Prospective Study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(3):432-42. PubMed PMID: 20978481.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Meat consumption and risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in a large prospective study. AU - Cross,Amanda J, AU - Freedman,Neal D, AU - Ren,Jiansong, AU - Ward,Mary H, AU - Hollenbeck,Albert R, AU - Schatzkin,Arthur, AU - Sinha,Rashmi, AU - Abnet,Christian C, Y1 - 2010/10/26/ PY - 2010/10/28/entrez PY - 2010/10/28/pubmed PY - 2011/4/29/medline SP - 432 EP - 42 JF - The American journal of gastroenterology JO - Am. J. Gastroenterol. VL - 106 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVES: Red and processed meats could increase cancer risk through several potential mechanisms involving iron, heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and N-nitroso compounds. Although there have been multiple studies of meat and colorectal cancer, other gastrointestinal malignancies are understudied. METHODS: We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between meat, meat components, and meat cooking by-products and risk of esophageal or gastric cancer in a large cohort study. During ∼10 years of follow-up, we accrued 215 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 630 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 454 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas, and 501 gastric non-cardia adenocarcinomas. RESULTS: Red meat intake was positively associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (HR for the top versus bottom quintile=1.79, 95% CI: 1.07-3.01, P for trend=0.019). Individuals in the highest intake quintile of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) had an increased risk for gastric cardia cancer (HR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.01-2.07, P for trend=0.104). Furthermore, those in the highest quintile of 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), or heme iron intake had a suggestive increased risk for esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR=1.35, 95% CI: 0.97-1.89, P for trend=0.022; HR=1.45, 95% CI: 0.99-2.12, P for trend=0.463; or HR=1.47, 95% CI: 0.99-2.20, P for trend=0.063, respectively). Benzo[a]pyrene, nitrate, and nitrite were not associated with esophageal or gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: We found positive associations between red meat intake and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and between DiMeIQx intake and gastric cardia cancer. SN - 1572-0241 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20978481/Meat_consumption_and_risk_of_esophageal_and_gastric_cancer_in_a_large_prospective_study_ L2 - http://Insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=20978481 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -