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Renin-angiotensin system blockade and cognitive function in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: analysis of data from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

cardiovascular risk factors are associated with dementia and cognitive decline. We investigated the effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on cognitive function in patients aged 55 years and older with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage in two clinical trials.

METHODS

in the main study, ONTARGET, a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial, the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of standard doses of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ramipril), an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan), and a combination of the drugs were evaluated in 25 620 participants. In the parallel TRANSCEND trial, the effects of telmisartan were compared with those of placebo in 5926 participants intolerant to ACE inhibitors. Secondary outcomes included cognitive impairment (defined by investigator-reported diagnosis of dementia or significant cognitive dysfunction, or a score of ≤ 23 on the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) and cognitive decline (a decrease of ≤ 3 points on the MMSE from baseline during follow-up). Analyses were by intention to treat. We pooled data from these studies to identify baseline predictors of cognitive impairment and its frequency according to mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up. These studies were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153101.

FINDINGS

During a median duration of 56 months (IQR 51-64) of follow-up in ONTARGET, cognitive impairment occurred in 652 (8%) of 7865 patients allocated ramipril, 584 (7%) of 7797 allocated telmisartan, and 618 (8%) of 7807 allocated combination treatment (combination vs ramipril, odds ratio [OR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85-1·07, p= 0·39; telmisartan vs ramipril, OR 0·90, 0·80-1·01, p = 0·06). Corresponding figures for cognitive decline were 1314 (17%), 1279 (17%), and 1240 (17%) in each of the groups, respectively (telmisartan vs ramipril, OR 0·97, 0·89-1·06, p= 0·53; combination vs ramipril, OR 0·95, 0·88-1·04, p=0·28). In TRANSCEND, cognitive impairment occurred in 239 (9%) of 2694 participants allocated telmisartan compared with 245 (9%) of 2689 allocated placebo (OR 0·97, 0·81-1·17, p= 0·76). The corresponding figures for cognitive decline were 454 (17%) and 412 (16%; OR 1·10, 0·95-1·27, p= 0·22).

INTERPRETATION

In patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes, different approaches to blocking of the renin-angiotensin system had no clear effects on cognitive outcomes. Although patients with the lowest systolic blood pressure had the greatest preservation of cognitive function, meta-regression analyses did not show any benefits of blood-pressure lowering on cognition over several years of treatment.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    The George Institute for Global Health, University of Sydney and Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. canderson@george.org.au

    , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    The Lancet. Neurology 10:1 2011 Jan pg 43-53

    MeSH

    Aged
    Aged, 80 and over
    Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
    Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
    Benzimidazoles
    Benzoates
    Cardiovascular Diseases
    Cognition Disorders
    Double-Blind Method
    Drug Therapy, Combination
    Female
    Follow-Up Studies
    Humans
    Male
    Mental Status Schedule
    Neuropsychological Tests
    Odds Ratio
    Ramipril
    Renin-Angiotensin System
    Telmisartan
    Treatment Outcome

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Multicenter Study
    Randomized Controlled Trial

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    20980201

    Citation

    Anderson, Craig, et al. "Renin-angiotensin System Blockade and Cognitive Function in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Analysis of Data From the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND Studies." The Lancet. Neurology, vol. 10, no. 1, 2011, pp. 43-53.
    Anderson C, Teo K, Gao P, et al. Renin-angiotensin system blockade and cognitive function in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: analysis of data from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(1):43-53.
    Anderson, C., Teo, K., Gao, P., Arima, H., Dans, A., Unger, T., ... Yusuf, S. (2011). Renin-angiotensin system blockade and cognitive function in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: analysis of data from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies. The Lancet. Neurology, 10(1), pp. 43-53. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70250-7.
    Anderson C, et al. Renin-angiotensin System Blockade and Cognitive Function in Patients at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: Analysis of Data From the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND Studies. Lancet Neurol. 2011;10(1):43-53. PubMed PMID: 20980201.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Renin-angiotensin system blockade and cognitive function in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: analysis of data from the ONTARGET and TRANSCEND studies. AU - Anderson,Craig, AU - Teo,Koon, AU - Gao,Peggy, AU - Arima,Hisatomi, AU - Dans,Antonio, AU - Unger,Thomas, AU - Commerford,Patrick, AU - Dyal,Leanne, AU - Schumacher,Helmut, AU - Pogue,Janice, AU - Paolasso,Ernesto, AU - Holwerda,Nicolaas, AU - Chazova,Irina, AU - Binbrek,Azan, AU - Young,James, AU - Yusuf,Salim, AU - ,, Y1 - 2010/10/25/ PY - 2010/10/29/entrez PY - 2010/10/29/pubmed PY - 2011/1/15/medline SP - 43 EP - 53 JF - The Lancet. Neurology JO - Lancet Neurol VL - 10 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: cardiovascular risk factors are associated with dementia and cognitive decline. We investigated the effects of renin-angiotensin system blockade on cognitive function in patients aged 55 years and older with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease or diabetes with end-organ damage in two clinical trials. METHODS: in the main study, ONTARGET, a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised controlled trial, the effects on cardiovascular outcomes of standard doses of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ramipril), an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan), and a combination of the drugs were evaluated in 25 620 participants. In the parallel TRANSCEND trial, the effects of telmisartan were compared with those of placebo in 5926 participants intolerant to ACE inhibitors. Secondary outcomes included cognitive impairment (defined by investigator-reported diagnosis of dementia or significant cognitive dysfunction, or a score of ≤ 23 on the Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE]) and cognitive decline (a decrease of ≤ 3 points on the MMSE from baseline during follow-up). Analyses were by intention to treat. We pooled data from these studies to identify baseline predictors of cognitive impairment and its frequency according to mean systolic blood pressure during follow-up. These studies were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00153101. FINDINGS: During a median duration of 56 months (IQR 51-64) of follow-up in ONTARGET, cognitive impairment occurred in 652 (8%) of 7865 patients allocated ramipril, 584 (7%) of 7797 allocated telmisartan, and 618 (8%) of 7807 allocated combination treatment (combination vs ramipril, odds ratio [OR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·85-1·07, p= 0·39; telmisartan vs ramipril, OR 0·90, 0·80-1·01, p = 0·06). Corresponding figures for cognitive decline were 1314 (17%), 1279 (17%), and 1240 (17%) in each of the groups, respectively (telmisartan vs ramipril, OR 0·97, 0·89-1·06, p= 0·53; combination vs ramipril, OR 0·95, 0·88-1·04, p=0·28). In TRANSCEND, cognitive impairment occurred in 239 (9%) of 2694 participants allocated telmisartan compared with 245 (9%) of 2689 allocated placebo (OR 0·97, 0·81-1·17, p= 0·76). The corresponding figures for cognitive decline were 454 (17%) and 412 (16%; OR 1·10, 0·95-1·27, p= 0·22). INTERPRETATION: In patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes, different approaches to blocking of the renin-angiotensin system had no clear effects on cognitive outcomes. Although patients with the lowest systolic blood pressure had the greatest preservation of cognitive function, meta-regression analyses did not show any benefits of blood-pressure lowering on cognition over several years of treatment. SN - 1474-4465 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/20980201/Renin_angiotensin_system_blockade_and_cognitive_function_in_patients_at_high_risk_of_cardiovascular_disease:_analysis_of_data_from_the_ONTARGET_and_TRANSCEND_studies_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1474-4422(10)70250-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -