Triamcinolone-loaded glutaraldehyde cross-linked chitosan microspheres: prolonged release approach for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Drug Deliv. 2011 Apr; 18(3):198-207.DD
The use of glucocorticoids in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis has been widely employed, but, owing to their systemic side-effects and also their susceptibility to the first pass metabolism, their use is being discouraged. To circumvent this, triamcinolone (TA) were encapsulated in chitosan microspheres with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linking agent to achieve a prolonged drug release. The percentage of drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, and surface morphology by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Phase transition by Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), as well as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies was carried out to characterize the chitosan microspheres. In-vitro and in-vivo release studies revealed that microspheres were able to control the release of TA with a uniform release pattern up to a period of 36 days and thereafter an extended release up to 63 days. The clinical parameters were investigated for changes in paw volume, hematological parameters like Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), Paced cell volume (PCV), Total leucocyte count (TLC), Hb, and Differential cell count (DCC) in Fruend's complete adjuvant induced arthritic rats. Histopathological findings as well as radiology (X-ray) further confirmed the effectiveness of TA encapsulated microspheres in mitigating the rat arthritic model.