Immunohistochemical expression of muscarinic receptors in the urothelium and suburothelium of neurogenic and idiopathic overactive human bladders, and changes with botulinum neurotoxin administration.J Urol. 2010 Dec; 184(6):2578-85.JU
To investigate the possible associations of urothelial and suburothelial muscarinic receptors with human bladder pathophysiology we examined the immunohistochemical expression of muscarinic receptors types 1, 2 and 3 in the bladder urothelium and suburothelium of patients with neurogenic or idiopathic detrusor overactivity compared with that in controls. We also examined associations with patient quantified symptoms and the effect of intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We obtained bladder biopsies from 36 patients with detrusor overactivity before, and 4 and 16 weeks after treatment with intradetrusor botulinum neurotoxin type A via flexible cystoscopy. Patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity were injected with 300 U botulinum neurotoxin type A and those with idiopathic detrusor overactivity received 200 U. Control biopsies were taken from 7 patients during investigation for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. We studied muscarinic receptor immunohistochemical expression using commercial antibodies to muscarinic receptors 1, 2 and 3 with results quantified by image analysis.
We noted decreased suburothelial muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity in detrusor overactivity biopsies vs controls, which were significant for muscarinic receptors 1 and 3. After successful botulinum neurotoxin treatment we noted only increased muscarinic receptor 1 and 2 immunoreactivity. Urothelial muscarinic receptor 1 and 3 immunoreactivity was increased after treatment. We identified no substantial urothelial muscarinic receptor 2 immunoreactivity. Receptor levels showed inverse correlations with patient urgency and frequency.
Decreased muscarinic receptor levels in the urothelium and suburothelium of patients with detrusor overactivity were largely restored to control levels after successful treatment with botulinum neurotoxin type A. Correlations of receptor levels with patient symptoms further support a role for urothelial and suburothelial muscarinic receptors in detrusor overactivity in humans.