Immunization against anthrax with aromatic compound-dependent (Aro-) mutants of Bacillus anthracis and with recombinant strains of Bacillus subtilis that produce anthrax protective antigen.Infect Immun 1990; 58(2):303-8II
The safety and efficacy of five prototype, live anthrax vaccines were studied in Hartley guinea pigs and CBA/J and A/J mice. Two of the strains, Bacillus anthracis FD111 and FD112, are Aro- mutants derived by Tn916 mutagenesis of B. anthracis UM23-1. Bacillus subtilis PA1 and PA2 contain a recombinant plasmid, pPA101 or pPA102, respectively, that carries the gene from B. anthracis encoding synthesis of protective antigen (PA). The final strain, B. subtilis PA7, was isolated in this study from B. subtilis DB104 transformed with pPA101. All five strains were less virulent in guinea pigs and A/J and CBA/J mice than the toxinogenic, nonencapsulated B. anthracis veterinary vaccine Sterne strain. A/J and CBA/J inbred mice represent strains that are innately susceptible and resistant, respectively, to the Sterne strain. These differences in susceptibility are due to differences in ability to produce complement component 5. In guinea pigs, immunization with PA1 or PA2 vegetative cells or PA7 spores protected greater than or equal to 95% from an intramuscular spore challenge with the virulent, "vaccine-resistant" B. anthracis Ames strain. Strain PA2 vegetative cells and strain PA7 spores were as effective as the Sterne strain in Sterne-resistant CBA/J mice, protecting 70% of the mice from Ames strain spore challenge. Immunization with FD111 or FD112 vegetative cells fully protected guinea pigs from challenge. Immunization with FD111 cells protected up to 100% of CBA/J mice and up to 70% of A/J mice.