Peroxisomes as a cellular source of reactive nitrogen species signal molecules.Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Feb 01; 506(1):1-11.AB
Peroxisomes are single membrane-bounded subcellular organelles with an essentially oxidative type of metabolism and are probably the major sites of intracellular H(2)O(2) production. These organelles also generate superoxide radicals (O(2)(-)) and besides catalase they have a complex battery of antioxidative enzymes. In recent years the existence of l-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and the generation of the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) nitric oxide (NO) have been demonstrated in plant peroxisomes. The inter-cellular and intracellular NO carrier S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) can be generated inside peroxisomes and the presence of this RNS has been demonstrated in peroxisomes from several plant species. This review analyzes the available evidence concerning the properties of the NOS activity and the generation of the RNS messengers NO and GSNO in peroxisomes in the context of the cellular function of these organelles as a source of RNS signaling molecules. The important physiological functions displayed by NO and other RNS in intra- and inter-cellular communication in different organisms indicate that more attention should be payed to the RNS signaling function of peroxisomes in human, animal and fungal cells, where it is very likely that similar mechanisms to those found in plant peroxisomes are also operative.