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Acid-base imbalances during a 120 km endurance race compared by traditional and simplified strong ion difference methods.
Equine Vet J Suppl. 2010 NovEV

Abstract

REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY

Acid-base disturbances are traditionally assessed using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The simplified strong ion approach describes more accurately the complex acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities present in endurance horses.

OBJECTIVE

To describe acid-base and electrolytes changes in fit horses competing in a FEI*** 120 km endurance race and to compare the traditional vs. strong ion approaches.

METHODS

Thirty horses were initially enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples were obtained before the race (n = 25), at the second (n = 29; 65.4 km) and third vet-gates (n = 23, 97.4 km) and upon race completion (n = 17). Blood gas analysis was performed to determine pH, PCO(2), PO(2), Na(+), K(+) and iCa(++), and calculate HCO(3)(-), base excess and tCO(2). Packed cell volume and total protein, globulin, albumin, lactate, phosphate, glucose and creatinine concentrations, as well as muscle enzymes activities, were also determined. Calculated variables included strong ion difference (SIDm), strong ion gap (SIG) and nonvolatile buffer concentration (A(tot)). A longitudinal linear model using the general estimating equation methodology was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS

Mild but significant increases in PCO(2), SIDm, lactate, plasma protein, globulins and A(tot), as well as a decrease in potassium concentrations were observed from the second vet-gate to race finish when compared to prerace values (P < 0.05). Using the strong ion approach, 67% samples showed acid-base disturbances vs. 70% when using the traditional method, but their interpretations only matched in 24% of measurements.

CONCLUSIONS

A complex acid-base imbalance characterised by a mild strong ion alkalosis (hypochloraemia attenuated by hyperlactataemia), nonvolatile buffer acidosis and compensatory mild respiratory acidosis were present in most horses, although pH did not significantly change during a 120 km endurance race. The strong ion approach to interpretation of acid-base balance should be favoured over the traditional approach in endurance horses, given the frequent and complex alterations in PCO(2), SIDm and A(tot) during a race.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Servei de Medicina Interna Equina, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21058986

Citation

Viu, J, et al. "Acid-base Imbalances During a 120 Km Endurance Race Compared By Traditional and Simplified Strong Ion Difference Methods." Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement, 2010, pp. 76-82.
Viu J, Jose-Cunilleras E, Armengou L, et al. Acid-base imbalances during a 120 km endurance race compared by traditional and simplified strong ion difference methods. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2010.
Viu, J., Jose-Cunilleras, E., Armengou, L., Cesarini, C., Tarancón, I., Rios, J., & Monreal, L. (2010). Acid-base imbalances during a 120 km endurance race compared by traditional and simplified strong ion difference methods. Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement, (38), 76-82. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00213.x
Viu J, et al. Acid-base Imbalances During a 120 Km Endurance Race Compared By Traditional and Simplified Strong Ion Difference Methods. Equine Vet J Suppl. 2010;(38)76-82. PubMed PMID: 21058986.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Acid-base imbalances during a 120 km endurance race compared by traditional and simplified strong ion difference methods. AU - Viu,J, AU - Jose-Cunilleras,E, AU - Armengou,L, AU - Cesarini,C, AU - Tarancón,I, AU - Rios,J, AU - Monreal,L, PY - 2010/11/10/entrez PY - 2011/5/27/pubmed PY - 2011/8/19/medline SP - 76 EP - 82 JF - Equine veterinary journal. Supplement JO - Equine Vet J Suppl IS - 38 N2 - REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: Acid-base disturbances are traditionally assessed using the Henderson-Hasselbach equation. The simplified strong ion approach describes more accurately the complex acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities present in endurance horses. OBJECTIVE: To describe acid-base and electrolytes changes in fit horses competing in a FEI*** 120 km endurance race and to compare the traditional vs. strong ion approaches. METHODS: Thirty horses were initially enrolled in the study. Venous blood samples were obtained before the race (n = 25), at the second (n = 29; 65.4 km) and third vet-gates (n = 23, 97.4 km) and upon race completion (n = 17). Blood gas analysis was performed to determine pH, PCO(2), PO(2), Na(+), K(+) and iCa(++), and calculate HCO(3)(-), base excess and tCO(2). Packed cell volume and total protein, globulin, albumin, lactate, phosphate, glucose and creatinine concentrations, as well as muscle enzymes activities, were also determined. Calculated variables included strong ion difference (SIDm), strong ion gap (SIG) and nonvolatile buffer concentration (A(tot)). A longitudinal linear model using the general estimating equation methodology was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Mild but significant increases in PCO(2), SIDm, lactate, plasma protein, globulins and A(tot), as well as a decrease in potassium concentrations were observed from the second vet-gate to race finish when compared to prerace values (P < 0.05). Using the strong ion approach, 67% samples showed acid-base disturbances vs. 70% when using the traditional method, but their interpretations only matched in 24% of measurements. CONCLUSIONS: A complex acid-base imbalance characterised by a mild strong ion alkalosis (hypochloraemia attenuated by hyperlactataemia), nonvolatile buffer acidosis and compensatory mild respiratory acidosis were present in most horses, although pH did not significantly change during a 120 km endurance race. The strong ion approach to interpretation of acid-base balance should be favoured over the traditional approach in endurance horses, given the frequent and complex alterations in PCO(2), SIDm and A(tot) during a race. UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21058986/Acid_base_imbalances_during_a_120_km_endurance_race_compared_by_traditional_and_simplified_strong_ion_difference_methods_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00213.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -