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Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat.
J Dairy Sci. 2010 Dec; 93(12):5877-89.JD

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding an increased amount of extruded flaxseed with high proportions of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to transition dairy cows on performance, energy balance, and FA composition in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. Multiparous Israeli-Holstein dry cows (n = 44) at 256 d of pregnancy were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) control cows were fed prepartum a dry-cow diet and postpartum a lactating-cow diet that consisted of 5.8% ether extracts; and (2) extruded flaxseed (EF) cows were supplemented prepartum with 1 kg of extruded flaxseed (7.9% dry matter)/cow per d, and postpartum were fed a diet containing 9.2% of the same supplement. The EF supplement was fed until 100 d in milk. On average, each pre- and postpartum EF cow consumed 160.9 and 376.2g of C18:3n-3/d, respectively. Postpartum dry matter intake was 3.8% higher in the EF cows. Milk production was 6.4% higher and fat content was 0.4% U lower in the EF group than in the controls, with no differences in fat and protein yields. Energy balance in the EF cows was more positive than in the controls; however, no differences were observed in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma. Compared with controls, EF cows had greater proportions of C18:3n-3 in plasma and adipose tissue. The proportion of n-3 FA in milk fat was 3.7-fold higher in the EF cows, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased from 8.3 in controls to 2.3 in the EF cows. Within-group tests revealed that the C18:3n-3 content in milk fat in the EF cows was negatively correlated with milk fat percentage (r = -0.91) and yield (r = -0.89). However, no decrease in de novo synthesis of less than 16-carbon FA was found in the EF group, whereas C16:0 yields were markedly decreased. It appears that the enrichment of C18:3n-3 in milk fat was limited to approximately 2%, and the potential for increasing this n-3 FA in milk is higher for cows with lower milk fat contents. In conclusion, feeding increased amounts of C18:3n-3 during the transition period enhanced dry matter intake postpartum, increased milk production, decreased milk fat content, and improved energy balance. Increased amounts of EF considerably influenced the FA profile of plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. However, the extent of C18:3n-3 enrichment in milk fat was limited and was negatively correlated with milk fat content and yield.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Dairy Cattle, Institute of Animal Sciences, Volcani Center, Bet-Dagan 50250, Israel. uzim@volcani.agri.gov.ilNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21094761

Citation

Zachut, M, et al. "Effects of Increased Supplementation of N-3 Fatty Acids to Transition Dairy Cows On Performance and Fatty Acid Profile in Plasma, Adipose Tissue, and Milk Fat." Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 93, no. 12, 2010, pp. 5877-89.
Zachut M, Arieli A, Lehrer H, et al. Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93(12):5877-89.
Zachut, M., Arieli, A., Lehrer, H., Livshitz, L., Yakoby, S., & Moallem, U. (2010). Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(12), 5877-89. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2010-3427
Zachut M, et al. Effects of Increased Supplementation of N-3 Fatty Acids to Transition Dairy Cows On Performance and Fatty Acid Profile in Plasma, Adipose Tissue, and Milk Fat. J Dairy Sci. 2010;93(12):5877-89. PubMed PMID: 21094761.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effects of increased supplementation of n-3 fatty acids to transition dairy cows on performance and fatty acid profile in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. AU - Zachut,M, AU - Arieli,A, AU - Lehrer,H, AU - Livshitz,L, AU - Yakoby,S, AU - Moallem,U, PY - 2010/06/02/received PY - 2010/08/15/accepted PY - 2010/11/25/entrez PY - 2010/11/26/pubmed PY - 2011/2/2/medline SP - 5877 EP - 89 JF - Journal of dairy science JO - J Dairy Sci VL - 93 IS - 12 N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding an increased amount of extruded flaxseed with high proportions of n-3 fatty acids (FA) to transition dairy cows on performance, energy balance, and FA composition in plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. Multiparous Israeli-Holstein dry cows (n = 44) at 256 d of pregnancy were assigned to 2 treatments: (1) control cows were fed prepartum a dry-cow diet and postpartum a lactating-cow diet that consisted of 5.8% ether extracts; and (2) extruded flaxseed (EF) cows were supplemented prepartum with 1 kg of extruded flaxseed (7.9% dry matter)/cow per d, and postpartum were fed a diet containing 9.2% of the same supplement. The EF supplement was fed until 100 d in milk. On average, each pre- and postpartum EF cow consumed 160.9 and 376.2g of C18:3n-3/d, respectively. Postpartum dry matter intake was 3.8% higher in the EF cows. Milk production was 6.4% higher and fat content was 0.4% U lower in the EF group than in the controls, with no differences in fat and protein yields. Energy balance in the EF cows was more positive than in the controls; however, no differences were observed in concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose in plasma. Compared with controls, EF cows had greater proportions of C18:3n-3 in plasma and adipose tissue. The proportion of n-3 FA in milk fat was 3.7-fold higher in the EF cows, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was decreased from 8.3 in controls to 2.3 in the EF cows. Within-group tests revealed that the C18:3n-3 content in milk fat in the EF cows was negatively correlated with milk fat percentage (r = -0.91) and yield (r = -0.89). However, no decrease in de novo synthesis of less than 16-carbon FA was found in the EF group, whereas C16:0 yields were markedly decreased. It appears that the enrichment of C18:3n-3 in milk fat was limited to approximately 2%, and the potential for increasing this n-3 FA in milk is higher for cows with lower milk fat contents. In conclusion, feeding increased amounts of C18:3n-3 during the transition period enhanced dry matter intake postpartum, increased milk production, decreased milk fat content, and improved energy balance. Increased amounts of EF considerably influenced the FA profile of plasma, adipose tissue, and milk fat. However, the extent of C18:3n-3 enrichment in milk fat was limited and was negatively correlated with milk fat content and yield. SN - 1525-3198 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21094761/Effects_of_increased_supplementation_of_n_3_fatty_acids_to_transition_dairy_cows_on_performance_and_fatty_acid_profile_in_plasma_adipose_tissue_and_milk_fat_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-0302(10)00639-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -