Effect of exercise intensity and AICAR on isoform-specific expressions of murine skeletal muscle PGC-1α mRNA: a role of β₂-adrenergic receptor activation.Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Feb; 300(2):E341-9.AJ
There are three isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) mRNA, which promotes mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscles. Compared with PGC-1α-a mRNA, PGC-1α-b or PGC-1α-c mRNA is transcribed by a different exon 1 of the PGC-1α gene. In this study, effects of exercise intensity and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) on isoform-specific expressions of PGC-1α were investigated. All isoforms were increased in proportion to exercise intensity of treadmill running (10-30 m/min for 30 min). Preinjection of β₂-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist (ICI 118551) inhibited the increase in PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c mRNAs, but not the increase in PGC-1α-a mRNA, in response to high-intensity exercise. Although high-intensity exercise activated α2-AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-AMPK) in skeletal muscles, inactivation of α2-AMPK activity did not affect high-intensity exercise-induced mRNA expression of all PGC-1α isoforms, suggesting that activation of α2-AMPK is not mandatory for an increase in PGC-1α mRNA by high-intensity exercise. A single injection in mice of AICAR, an AMPK activator, increased mRNAs of all PGC-1α isoforms. AICAR increased blood catecholamine concentrations, and preinjection of β₂-AR antagonist inhibited the increase in PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c mRNAs but not the increase in PGC-1α-a mRNA. Direct exposure of epitrochlearis muscle to AICAR increased PGC-1α-a but not the -b isoform. These data indicate that exercise-induced PGC-1α expression was dependent on the intensity of exercise. Exercise or AICAR injection increased PGC-1α-b and PGC-1α-c mRNAs via β₂-AR activation, whereas high-intensity exercise increased PGC-1α-a expression by a multiple mechanism in which α2-AMPK is one of the signaling pathways.