Formulation of controlled-release capsules of biopharmaceutical classification system I drugs using niacin as a model.AAPS PharmSciTech. 2010 Dec; 11(4):1650-61.AP
Vitamin B(3) is made up of niacin (nicotinic acid) and its amide, niacinamide. Both have equivalent vitamin activity, but only niacin (not niacinamide) is effective in lowering elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. Administration of an extended-release (ER) oral tablet would frequently encounter food. If hydrogel is used to formulate the matrix of a biopharmaceutical classification system I drug (high solubility and high permeability), the dosage form absorbs water and swells.. The softened outer layer may be slashed off by food present in the stomach, thus, exposing the core tablet more readily for water absorption and speeding up drug release from its original designed rate. This project aimed to formulate niacin CR pellets made of hydrophobic inert matrix. After niacin was melted with excipients and cooled, the mass was extruded and spheronized into pellets. Size distribution and flowability were determined before pellets were filled into hard gelatin capsule. The USP dissolution study revealed that a candidate formulation of 250 mg in strength released similar amount of niacin as its commercial reference, niacin controlled-release 500 mg tablet, in 6 h (223.9 ± 23.8 mg, n = 4 versus 259.4 ± 2.6 mg, n = 3). The differential scanning calorimetry study of the pellets in capsules stored in 40°C for 4 weeks, and the content assay of capsules in 40°C up to 6 months suggested that niacin was stable within the innovative formulation. In vitro release from this innovative ER capsules stored at 40°C up to 4 weeks were also investigated.