In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial enteropathogens isolated from international travelers to Mexico, Guatemala, and India from 2006 to 2008.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Feb; 55(2):874-8.AA
The incidence rates of travelers' diarrhea (TD) have remained high for the last 50 years. More recently, there have been increasing recommendations for self-initiated therapy and use of prophylactic drugs for TD. We last examined the in vitro susceptibilities of commonly used antibiotics against TD pathogens in 1997. We now examine 456 enteropathogens isolated from adult travelers to Mexico, India, and Guatemala with diarrhea acquired between 2006 and 2008 to determine changes in susceptibility against 10 different antimicrobials by the agar dilution method. Traditional antibiotics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and doxycycline, continue to show high levels of resistance. Current first-line antibiotic agents, including fluoroquinolones and azithromycin, showed significantly higher MICs than in our earlier study, and MIC(90) levels were above the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute cutoffs for resistance. There were significant geographical differences in resistance patterns when Central America was compared with India. Entertoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolates showed increased resistance to ciprofloxacin (P = 0.023) and levofloxacin (P = 0.0078) in India compared with Central America. Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) isolates from Central America showed increased resistance to nearly all of the antibiotics tested. Compared to MICs of isolates 10 years prior, there were 4- to 10-fold increases in MIC(90) values for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and azithromycin for both ETEC and EAEC. There were no significant changes in rifaximin MICs. Rising MICs over time imply the need for continuous surveillance of susceptibility patterns worldwide and geographically specific recommendations in TD therapy.