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Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Jun 01; 115(3):221-8.DA

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period.

METHODS

We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type.

RESULTS

Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities.

CONCLUSIONS

The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. traci.c.green@brown.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21131140

Citation

Green, Traci C., et al. "Epidemiologic Trends and Geographic Patterns of Fatal Opioid Intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 115, no. 3, 2011, pp. 221-8.
Green TC, Grau LE, Carver HW, et al. Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;115(3):221-8.
Green, T. C., Grau, L. E., Carver, H. W., Kinzly, M., & Heimer, R. (2011). Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 115(3), 221-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.11.007
Green TC, et al. Epidemiologic Trends and Geographic Patterns of Fatal Opioid Intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Jun 1;115(3):221-8. PubMed PMID: 21131140.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Epidemiologic trends and geographic patterns of fatal opioid intoxications in Connecticut, USA: 1997-2007. AU - Green,Traci C, AU - Grau,Lauretta E, AU - Carver,H Wayne, AU - Kinzly,Mark, AU - Heimer,Robert, Y1 - 2010/12/04/ PY - 2010/09/28/received PY - 2010/11/07/revised PY - 2010/11/08/accepted PY - 2010/12/7/entrez PY - 2010/12/7/pubmed PY - 2012/1/11/medline SP - 221 EP - 8 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 115 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The leading cause of injury death among adults in Connecticut (CT), USA is drug poisonings. We analyzed the epidemiology and geographic distribution of opioid-involved accidental drug-involved intoxication deaths ("overdoses") in CT over an 11-year period. METHODS: We reviewed data from 1997 to 2007 on all adult accidental/undetermined drug intoxication deaths in CT that were referred to the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME). Regression analyses were conducted to uncover risk factors for fatal opioid-involved intoxications and to compare heroin- to prescription opioid- and methadone-involved deaths. Death locations were mapped to visualize differences in the geographic patterns of overdose by opioid type. RESULTS: Of the 2900 qualifying deaths, 2231 (77%) involved opioids. Trends over time revealed increases in total opioid-related deaths although heroin-related deaths remained constant. Methadone, oxycodone and fentanyl, the most frequently cited prescription opioids, exhibited significant increases in opioid deaths. Prescription opioid-only deaths were more likely to involve other medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) and to have occurred among residents of a suburban or small town location, compared to heroin-involved or methadone-involved deaths. Heroin-only deaths tended to occur among non-Whites, were more likely to involve alcohol or cocaine and to occur in public locations and large cities. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiology of fatal opioid overdose in CT exhibits distinct longitudinal, risk factor, and geographic differences by opioid type. Each of these trends has implications for public health and prevention efforts. SN - 1879-0046 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21131140/Epidemiologic_trends_and_geographic_patterns_of_fatal_opioid_intoxications_in_Connecticut_USA:_1997_2007_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376-8716(10)00382-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -