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Defensive endosymbionts: a cryptic trophic level in community ecology.
Ecol Lett 2011; 14(2):150-5EL

Abstract

Maternally transmitted endosymbionts are widespread among insects, but how they are maintained within host populations is largely unknown. Recent discoveries show that some endosymbionts protect their hosts from pathogens or parasites. Spiroplasma, an endosymbiont of Drosophila neotestacea, protects female hosts from the sterilizing effects of parasitism by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. Here, we show that Spiroplasma spreads rapidly within experimental populations of D. neotestacea subject to Howardula parasitism, but is neither strongly favored nor selected against in the absence of Howardula. In a reciprocal experiment, Howardula declined steadily to extinction in populations of Spiroplasma-infected flies, whereas in populations of uninfected flies, the prevalence of Howardula parasitism increased to c. 100%. Thus, Spiroplasma and Howardula exhibit effectively consumer-resource trophic dynamics. The recent spread of Spiroplasma in natural populations of D. neotestacea coincides with a decline in the prevalence of Howardula parasitism in the wild.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA. joja@mail.rochester.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21155960

Citation

Jaenike, John, and Thomas D. Brekke. "Defensive Endosymbionts: a Cryptic Trophic Level in Community Ecology." Ecology Letters, vol. 14, no. 2, 2011, pp. 150-5.
Jaenike J, Brekke TD. Defensive endosymbionts: a cryptic trophic level in community ecology. Ecol Lett. 2011;14(2):150-5.
Jaenike, J., & Brekke, T. D. (2011). Defensive endosymbionts: a cryptic trophic level in community ecology. Ecology Letters, 14(2), pp. 150-5. doi:10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01564.x.
Jaenike J, Brekke TD. Defensive Endosymbionts: a Cryptic Trophic Level in Community Ecology. Ecol Lett. 2011;14(2):150-5. PubMed PMID: 21155960.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Defensive endosymbionts: a cryptic trophic level in community ecology. AU - Jaenike,John, AU - Brekke,Thomas D, Y1 - 2010/12/13/ PY - 2010/12/16/entrez PY - 2010/12/16/pubmed PY - 2011/5/3/medline SP - 150 EP - 5 JF - Ecology letters JO - Ecol. Lett. VL - 14 IS - 2 N2 - Maternally transmitted endosymbionts are widespread among insects, but how they are maintained within host populations is largely unknown. Recent discoveries show that some endosymbionts protect their hosts from pathogens or parasites. Spiroplasma, an endosymbiont of Drosophila neotestacea, protects female hosts from the sterilizing effects of parasitism by the nematode Howardula aoronymphium. Here, we show that Spiroplasma spreads rapidly within experimental populations of D. neotestacea subject to Howardula parasitism, but is neither strongly favored nor selected against in the absence of Howardula. In a reciprocal experiment, Howardula declined steadily to extinction in populations of Spiroplasma-infected flies, whereas in populations of uninfected flies, the prevalence of Howardula parasitism increased to c. 100%. Thus, Spiroplasma and Howardula exhibit effectively consumer-resource trophic dynamics. The recent spread of Spiroplasma in natural populations of D. neotestacea coincides with a decline in the prevalence of Howardula parasitism in the wild. SN - 1461-0248 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21155960/Defensive_endosymbionts:_a_cryptic_trophic_level_in_community_ecology_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01564.x DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -