Fingolimod for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis.Expert Rev Neurother. 2011 Feb; 11(2):165-83.ER
Fingolimod is the first oral agent approved in the USA for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator that binds to sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors on lymphocytes, resulting in a downregulation of the receptor and a reversible sequestration of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissue. Effector memory T cells are not sequestered so that immune surveillance may be minimally affected. Two large-scale Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of fingolimod compared with placebo and intramuscular interferon β-1a in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Due to its mechanism of action, fingolimod administration may be associated with first-dose bradycardia and macular edema. Therefore, patients should be observed for 6 h at the time of their first dose and undergo ophthalmologic evaluation prior to treatment initiation and at 3-4 months after initiation.