Heavy metal accumulation in soil amended with roadside pond sediment and uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. PBW 343).ScientificWorldJournal 2010; 10:2314-29S
The risks of heavy metal accumulation and the dynamics related to roadside pond sediment application in comparison to control of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated in field experiments. Selective sequential extraction procedures revealed that application of pond sediment in soil increases the labile pools of the studied heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). Risk assessment codes concluded that Cu and Pb were in the high-risk zone in both pond sediment and soil amended with pond sediment, whereas Zn and Cu were found in the medium-risk zone for control soil. Heavy metal accumulation by wheat straw and grain (39.38, 1.18, 23.73, 0.36, 0.18, and 16.8 mg kg⁻¹ for Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, and Pb, respectively, for wheat grain) was significantly increased through application of pond sediment. However, metal accumulation did not thwart the enhancement of wheat yield when pond sediment was applied. Health risk indexes of analyzed heavy metals were found to be within the Indian permissible limit for foodstuffs. Pond sediments help to fortify wheat grain by increasing the concentration of Zn and Cu as a source of micronutrients in the diet. However, a significant increase of Pb in wheat grain through pond sediment could be a health concern for its long-term application. Therefore, pond sediment would be a valuable resource for agriculture as an alternative organic supplement, but long-term use may require the cessation of the excavated sediment as agricultural landfill in order to restrict heavy metal contamination through it.