Single dose of oil-adjuvanted inactivated vaccine protects chickens from lethal infections of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.Vaccine. 2011 Mar 03; 29(11):2178-86.V
The highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses are endemic in poultry in many countries, but continuously infect humans and cause human mortality. H5N1 influenza viruses have been regarded as a pandemic candidate. In a pandemic event by this virus, the protection of poultry with an effective vaccine will help to greatly reduce the spread of this virus to humans since it easily infects poultry. Here we showed that immunization with one dose of oil-adjuvanted inactivated H5N1 vaccine could protect chickens from lethal infection by highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus until 12 weeks post-immunization. The complete protection of chickens depended on the amount of HA antigens in the vaccine. Complete homologous protection required over 1.25 μg of HA antigens and complete heterologous protection required over 5.0 μg of HA antigens. The bivalent H5N1 inactivated vaccine composed of 1.25 μg of each antigen from clade 1 and clade 2.3.4 H5N1 influenza virus completely protected chickens from the lethal challenge of both viruses. When we determined the induction of antibody subtypes in tissues including nasal cavity, trachea, and lungs, the IgG subtype of antibody was induced more than the IgM or IgA subtype of antibody. Taken together, our results suggest that one dose of oil-adjuvanted inactivated H5N1 vaccine could provide chickens with sterile immunity against the homologous highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus.