Executive function profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: different subtypes and comorbidity.Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2011 Mar; 26(2):120-32.AC
This study examined the executive function (EF) profile of Chinese boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using a large sample. Executive function performance within the ADHD subtypes and the effects of comorbidity were also investigated. Five hundred Chinese boys (375 with ADHD and 125 controls) aged 6-15 completed a battery of EF tests. Boys with all types of ADHD performed worse in all of the EF tests than age- and intelligence quotient-matched healthy controls. The boys with the inattention ADHD subtype and the combined subtype showed similar impairments across different EF tasks, whereas the boys with the hyperactive-impulsive ADHD subtype primarily displayed deficits in theory of mind and visual memory. Comorbid oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder had no additional influence on the EF characteristics of the boys with ADHD only, whereas comorbid learning disorder increased the severity of inhibition and shifting impairments.