Low-fat dietary pattern and change in body-composition traits in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar; 93(3):516-24.AJ
The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (DM) Trial was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of a low-fat (≤20% of total energy) or a usual diet in relation to chronic disease risk in postmenopausal women.
We characterized long-term body-composition changes associated with the DM trial and potential modifiers of these associations.
In the DM trial, 48,835 women aged 50-79 y were randomly assigned to intervention (40%) or comparison (60%) groups. We studied a subset with whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans at baseline and during follow-up. Changes in fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), and percentage body fat between the intervention (n = 1580) and comparison (n = 2731) groups at years 1, 3, and 6 were compared. By using generalized estimating equations, we calculated overall differences between groups and tested for interactions with age, diabetes, race-ethnicity (white, black, and Hispanic), body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy (HT).
The intervention women experienced significantly greater reductions in percentage body fat, FM, and LM at years 1 and 3 than did women in the comparison group (all P < 0.05). At year 6, only the FM change was significantly different between groups. Overall, the intervention was associated with reductions in percentage body fat (-0.8%; 95% CI: -1.0%, -0.6%), FM (-1.1 kg; 95% CI: -1.3, -0.8 kg), and LM (-0.17 kg; 95% CI: -0.28, -0.06 kg) during follow-up (all P < 0.003). Intervention associations varied by race-ethnicity, BMI, diabetes, and HT and remained significant after adjustment for physical activity.
This intervention was associated with modest long-term body-composition changes; the findings were more robust in years 1 and 3. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.