Effects of HUD-supported lead hazard control interventions in housing on children's blood lead.Environ Res. 2011 Feb; 111(2):301-11.ER
The Evaluation of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program studied the effectiveness of the housing intervention performed in reducing the blood lead of children at four post-intervention times (6-months, 1-year, 2-years, and 3-years). A repeat measures analysis showed that blood lead levels declined up to three-years post-intervention. The results at each successive collection time were significantly lower than at the previous post-intervention time except for the difference between the levels at two and three years. At two-years post-intervention, geometric mean blood lead levels were approximately 37% lower than at pre-intervention. Children with pre-intervention blood lead levels as low as 10 μg/dL experienced substantial declines in blood lead levels. Previous studies have found substantial improvements only if a child's pre-intervention blood lead level was above 20 μg/dL. Individual interior lead hazard control treatments as grouped by Interior Strategy were not a significant predictor of post-intervention blood lead levels. However, children living in dwellings where exterior lead hazard control interventions were done had lower blood lead levels at one-year post-intervention than those living in dwellings without the exterior interventions (all other factors being equal), but those differences were only significant when the mean exterior paint lead loading at pre-intervention was about the 90th percentile (7.0mg/cm(2)). This observation suggests that exterior lead hazard control can be an important component of a lead hazard control plan. Children who were six to eleven months of age at pre-intervention had a significant increase in blood lead at one-year post-intervention, probably due to other exposures.