Effects of thermal and high hydrostatic pressure processing and storage on the content of polyphenols and some quality attributes of fruit smoothies.J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Jan 26; 59(2):601-7.JA
The aim of the present study was the evaluation of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing on the levels of polyphenolic compounds and selected quality attributes of fruit smoothies compared to fresh and mild conventional pasteurization processing. Fruit smoothie samples were thermally (P(70) > 10 min) or HHP processed (450 MPa/1, 3, or 5 min/20 °C) (HHP1, HHP3, and HHP5, respectively). The polyphenolic content, color difference (ΔE), sensory acceptability, and rheological (G'; G''; G*) properties of the smoothies were assessed over a storage period of 30 days at 4 °C. Processing had a significant effect (p < 0.001) on the levels of polyphenolic compounds in smoothies. However, this effect was not consistent for all compound types. HHP processed samples (HHP1 and HHP3) had higher (p < 0.001) levels of phenolic compounds, for example, procyanidin B1 and hesperidin, than HHP5 samples. Levels of flavanones and hydroxycinnamic acid compounds decreased (p < 0.001) after 30 days of storage at 2-4 °C). Decreases were particularly notable between days 10 and 20 (hesperidin) and days 20 and 30 (chlorogenic acid) (p < 0.001). There was a wide variation in ΔE values recorded over the 30 day storage period (p < 0.001), with fresh and thermally processed smoothies exhibiting lower color change than their HHP counterparts (p < 0.001). No effect was observed for the type of process on complex modulus (G*) data, but all smoothies became less rigid during the storage period (p < 0.001). Despite minor product deterioration during storage (p < 0.001), sensory acceptability scores showed no preference for either fresh or processed (thermal/HHP) smoothies, which were deemed acceptable (>3) by panelists.