Changes of brain structure and function in ADHD children.Brain Topogr. 2011 Oct; 24(3-4):243-52.BT
To explore the changes of brain structure and function in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), fifteen ADHD patients (inattention subtype) and 15 normal control participants were recruited, the brain structure and function of these subjects were investigated by combining structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional MRI. The results showed that ADHD patients had a significant decrease in the volume of the white matter (P = 0.04), and a trend toward decreased volume of brain structures except for the putamen and globus pallidus. The visualization of statistical difference maps of the cortical thickness showed that ADHD patients had focal thinning in bilateral frontal regions and the right cingulate cortex (P < 0.05 uncorrected, except for a cluster threshold of 10 voxels). Statistical analysis of the FA maps revealed that ADHD patients had significantly decreased FA in the forceps minor, the internal capsule, the corona radiata, the splenium of the corpus callosum, and the bilateral basal ganglia (P < 0.05 uncorrected as above). ADHD patients had significantly decreased functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, left precuneus and thalamus, but increased functional connectivity in bilateral posterior medial frontal cortex in the default mode network (P < 0.05 uncorrected as above). Our results provide new insights into the changes of the brain structure and function in ADHD, which suggests that alterations in the brain structural and functional connectivity might implicate the pathophysiology of ADHD.