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Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities.
Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011 Apr; 30(4):959-66.ET

Abstract

Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached a copepodite stage (DT(½)) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1 was found acutely toxic at 2.6 mg/L (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50]). The toxicity of BP1 on early life-stage development was studied in combinations of three temperatures (15, 20, 25°C) and three salinities (15, 20, 25‰) using five toxicant concentrations between 0.051 and 2 mg/L in each scenario. Concentrations causing 10 and 50% inhibition of development (EC10 and EC50) were determined. Acartia tonsa was most resistant towards BP1 at 20°C where an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was found, whereas EC50 values were significantly lower at 15°C (0.49 mg/L) and 25°C (0.77 mg/L), respectively. The EC50 also decreased with increasing salinity. Our results demonstrate that environmental conditions do influence toxicity test results; thus, they need to be considered carefully when developing test protocols as well as for environmental risk assessments of chemicals.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark. koku@env.dtu.dkNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21194178

Citation

Kusk, Kresten Ole, et al. "Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) On Early Life-stage Development of the Marine Copepod Acartia Tonsa at Different Temperatures and Salinities." Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, vol. 30, no. 4, 2011, pp. 959-66.
Kusk KO, Avdolli M, Wollenberger L. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30(4):959-66.
Kusk, K. O., Avdolli, M., & Wollenberger, L. (2011). Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30(4), 959-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.458
Kusk KO, Avdolli M, Wollenberger L. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) On Early Life-stage Development of the Marine Copepod Acartia Tonsa at Different Temperatures and Salinities. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2011;30(4):959-66. PubMed PMID: 21194178.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities. AU - Kusk,Kresten Ole, AU - Avdolli,Manola, AU - Wollenberger,Leah, Y1 - 2011/02/19/ PY - 2010/09/14/received PY - 2010/10/14/revised PY - 2010/11/12/accepted PY - 2011/1/4/entrez PY - 2011/1/5/pubmed PY - 2011/5/18/medline SP - 959 EP - 66 JF - Environmental toxicology and chemistry JO - Environ. Toxicol. Chem. VL - 30 IS - 4 N2 - Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached a copepodite stage (DT(½)) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1 was found acutely toxic at 2.6 mg/L (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50]). The toxicity of BP1 on early life-stage development was studied in combinations of three temperatures (15, 20, 25°C) and three salinities (15, 20, 25‰) using five toxicant concentrations between 0.051 and 2 mg/L in each scenario. Concentrations causing 10 and 50% inhibition of development (EC10 and EC50) were determined. Acartia tonsa was most resistant towards BP1 at 20°C where an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was found, whereas EC50 values were significantly lower at 15°C (0.49 mg/L) and 25°C (0.77 mg/L), respectively. The EC50 also decreased with increasing salinity. Our results demonstrate that environmental conditions do influence toxicity test results; thus, they need to be considered carefully when developing test protocols as well as for environmental risk assessments of chemicals. SN - 1552-8618 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21194178/Effect_of_24_dihydroxybenzophenone__BP1__on_early_life_stage_development_of_the_marine_copepod_Acartia_tonsa_at_different_temperatures_and_salinities_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.458 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -