Effectiveness of the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 monovalent vaccine in Korea.Vaccine 2011; 29(7):1395-8V
The 2009 influenza pandemic was caused by a novel triple-reassortant influenza A/H1N1 virus that was further recombined with a Eurasian pig flu virus. Vaccination is a key countermeasure for disease; however, little data assessing vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the pandemic H1N1 virus are available. We conducted a matched case-control study to assess effectiveness of the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine against laboratory-confirmed, medically attended influenza patients. Subjects included in the study were ≥ 10 years of age and were treated at five university hospitals in the Republic of Korea (ROK) from December 2009 through March 2010. For subjects visiting outpatient clinics with influenza-like illness (ILI), real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was used to diagnose 2009 H1N1 influenza virus infection. Subjects with positive rRT-PCR were classified as cases, while those testing negative were controls. A valid vaccination corresponded to ≥ 14 days between receiving a dose of vaccine and symptom onset. Overall, 416 ILI subjects were analyzed, and 60 (14.4%) were vaccinated with the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine. The overall VE against pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 virus illness after adjustment for age group and presence of chronic medical conditions was 73.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]=49.1-86.1%). Both vaccine formulations (unadjuvanted and MF-59 adjuvanted) showed a statistically significant VE. In conclusion, the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 monovalent vaccine was substantially protective against pandemic influenza in the ROK during the 2009-2010 season.