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Major depressive disorder is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and low Omega-3 Index.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequent worldwide and have a high comorbidity rate. Omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested as disease modulators for both CVD and MDD. Therefore, we studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Omega-3 Index may represent markers for assessment of the cardiovascular risk in somatically healthy patients suffering from MDD.

METHOD

We conducted a case-control study from July 2004 to December 2007 in 166 adults (86 inpatients with MDD but without CVD from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from an outpatient clinic of the Division of Preventive Cardiology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany). Information gathered at baseline included MDD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria, depression ratings, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and fatty acid and interleukin-6 determinations. Fatty acid composition was analyzed according to the HS-Omega-3 Index methodology. During the study, patients received no supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. The main inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of MDD according to DSM-IV and a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) score of at least 17. Treatment response and remission were defined using the HDRS-17.

RESULTS

Several conventional risk factors such as high triglyceride (mean, 152 mg/dL vs 100 mg/dL; P < .001) and fasting glucose (mean, 96 mg/dL vs 87 mg/dL; P = .005) values as well as greater waist circumference (mean, 97 cm vs 87 cm; P = .019) and higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2); mean, 26 vs 24; P = .011) were more prevalent in MDD patients in comparison with controls. The Omega-3 Index (mean, 3.9% vs 5.1%; P < .001) and individual omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in MDD patients. An Omega-3 Index < 4% was associated with high concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (χ(2) = 7.8, P = .02).

CONCLUSIONS

Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the Omega-3 Index, and interleukin-6 levels indicated an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in MDD patients currently free of CVD. Our results support the employment of strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk in still cardiovascularly healthy MDD patients by targeting conventional risk factors and the Omega-3 Index.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Nussbaumstrasse 7, D-80336 Munich, Germany. Baghai@med.uni-muenchen.de

    , , , , , , ,

    Source

    The Journal of clinical psychiatry 72:9 2011 Sep pg 1242-7

    MeSH

    Biomarkers
    Blood Glucose
    Body Mass Index
    Case-Control Studies
    Chi-Square Distribution
    Coronary Disease
    Depressive Disorder, Major
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Female
    Humans
    Interleukin-6
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
    Risk Factors
    Statistics, Nonparametric
    Triglycerides
    Waist Circumference

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    21208589

    Citation

    Baghai, Thomas C., et al. "Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Low Omega-3 Index." The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 9, 2011, pp. 1242-7.
    Baghai TC, Varallo-Bedarida G, Born C, et al. Major depressive disorder is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and low Omega-3 Index. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72(9):1242-7.
    Baghai, T. C., Varallo-Bedarida, G., Born, C., Häfner, S., Schüle, C., Eser, D., ... von Schacky, C. (2011). Major depressive disorder is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and low Omega-3 Index. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72(9), pp. 1242-7. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05895blu.
    Baghai TC, et al. Major Depressive Disorder Is Associated With Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Low Omega-3 Index. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011;72(9):1242-7. PubMed PMID: 21208589.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Major depressive disorder is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and low Omega-3 Index. AU - Baghai,Thomas C, AU - Varallo-Bedarida,Gabriella, AU - Born,Christoph, AU - Häfner,Sibylle, AU - Schüle,Cornelius, AU - Eser,Daniela, AU - Rupprecht,Rainer, AU - Bondy,Brigitta, AU - von Schacky,Clemens, Y1 - 2010/12/14/ PY - 2009/12/09/received PY - 2010/03/15/accepted PY - 2011/1/7/entrez PY - 2011/1/7/pubmed PY - 2011/12/13/medline SP - 1242 EP - 7 JF - The Journal of clinical psychiatry JO - J Clin Psychiatry VL - 72 IS - 9 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are frequent worldwide and have a high comorbidity rate. Omega-3 fatty acids have been suggested as disease modulators for both CVD and MDD. Therefore, we studied whether polyunsaturated fatty acids and the Omega-3 Index may represent markers for assessment of the cardiovascular risk in somatically healthy patients suffering from MDD. METHOD: We conducted a case-control study from July 2004 to December 2007 in 166 adults (86 inpatients with MDD but without CVD from the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy and 80 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from an outpatient clinic of the Division of Preventive Cardiology, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany). Information gathered at baseline included MDD diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria, depression ratings, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and fatty acid and interleukin-6 determinations. Fatty acid composition was analyzed according to the HS-Omega-3 Index methodology. During the study, patients received no supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids. The main inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of MDD according to DSM-IV and a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) score of at least 17. Treatment response and remission were defined using the HDRS-17. RESULTS: Several conventional risk factors such as high triglyceride (mean, 152 mg/dL vs 100 mg/dL; P < .001) and fasting glucose (mean, 96 mg/dL vs 87 mg/dL; P = .005) values as well as greater waist circumference (mean, 97 cm vs 87 cm; P = .019) and higher body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2); mean, 26 vs 24; P = .011) were more prevalent in MDD patients in comparison with controls. The Omega-3 Index (mean, 3.9% vs 5.1%; P < .001) and individual omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in MDD patients. An Omega-3 Index < 4% was associated with high concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (χ(2) = 7.8, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: Conventional cardiovascular risk factors, the Omega-3 Index, and interleukin-6 levels indicated an elevated cardiovascular risk profile in MDD patients currently free of CVD. Our results support the employment of strategies to reduce the cardiovascular risk in still cardiovascularly healthy MDD patients by targeting conventional risk factors and the Omega-3 Index. SN - 1555-2101 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21208589/Major_depressive_disorder_is_associated_with_cardiovascular_risk_factors_and_low_Omega_3_Index_ L2 - http://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/article/pages/2011/v72n09/v72n0912.aspx DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -