Immunocytochemical detection of kappa and lambda light chain V region subgroups in human B-cell malignancies.Am J Pathol. 1990 Oct; 137(4):855-62.AJ
We have used a sensitive immunoperoxidase method and highly specific anti-light chain antisera to determine the light chain variable region (VL) subgroup nature of cytoplasmic (c) and cell surface (s) Ig expressed by human monoclonal plasma cells and B lymphocytes. The immunocytochemical characterization of cIg and sIg used antisera specific for the established kappa light chain V kappa subgroups (V kappa I, V kappa II, V kappa III, and V kappa IV) and the lambda light chain V lambda subgroups (V lambda I, V lambda II/V, V lambda IV, and V lambda VI). Studies were performed using cytospin preparations of bone marrow-, peripheral blood-, and lymph node-derived cells from patients with multiple myeloma, amyloidosis AL, and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and with low-, mid-, and high-grade B-cell malignancies. The V kappa or V lambda subgroup of the cIg or sIg also could be identified after deparaffinization and enzyme treatment of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. For those patients who had monoclonal serum or urinary Igs, there was complete concordance between the VL subgroup of the secreted Ig and that of the cIg or sIg. The percentage distribution of V kappa or V lambda subgroups on the sIg of cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other cytomorphologic types of B-cell malignancies differed from that found for kappa- or lambda-type Bence Jones proteins obtained from patients with multiple myeloma, amyloidosis AL, and Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. In contrast to the plasma cell and lymphocytoid plasma cell diseases, a relative predominance of certain VL subgroups, ie, V kappa IV, V lambda III, and V lambda IV, and the absence of the amyloid-associated V lambda VI subgroup were found in CLL and related diseases. The immunocytochemical techniques used make possible a rapid means to demonstrate B-cell monoclonality and provide further evidence for the selective expression of certain VL genes in human B-cell neoplasia.