Proanthocyanidin-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. exerts antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 by inhibition of viral adsorption and penetration.J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Mar 24; 134(2):468-74.JE
AIM OF THE STUDY
Extracts from the aerial parts of the South African resurrection plant Myrothamnus flabellifolia Welw. have been used traditionally against infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin diseases. A polyphenol-enriched extract was investigated for potential antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and adenovirus, and the underlying mode of action was to be studied.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Antiviral effects of an acetone-water extract (MF) from Myrothamnus flabellifolia on HSV-1 and adenovirus type 3 were tested in infected Vero cells by plaque reduction assay, MTT test and immunofluorescence. The influence of the extract on the HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein D was shown by Western blot. Organotypic full thickness skin models consisting of multilayer skin equivalents were used for the investigation of MF effects on HSV-1 replication.
MF exhibited strong antiviral activity against HSV-1. The HSV-1-specific inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) was determined as 0.4 μg/mL and the cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) against Vero cells as 50 μg/mL. A selectivity index (SI) (ratio of CC(50) to IC(50)) of approximately 120 was calculated when MF was added to the virus inoculum for 1h at 37°C prior to infection. The replication of adenovirus 3 was not affected by MF. MF abolished virus entry into the host cell by blocking viral attachment to the cell surface. When added after attachment at a concentration of >6 μg/mL, the extract also inhibited penetration of HSV-1 into the host cell. Polyphenolic compounds from MF directly interacted with viral particles, leading to the oligomerisation of envelope proteins as demonstrated for the essential viral glycoprotein D (gD). Using organotypic full thickness tissue cultures, it was shown that treatment of HSV-1 infected cultures with the MF resulted in reduced viral spread.
A polyphenol-enriched extract from Myrothamnus flabellifolia strongly acts against HSV-1 by blocking viral entry into the cells.