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Manganese and lead in children's blood and airborne particulate matter in Durban, South Africa.
Sci Total Environ. 2011 Feb 15; 409(6):1058-68.ST

Abstract

Despite the toxicity and widespread use of manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) as additives to motor fuels and for other purposes, information regarding human exposure in Africa is very limited. This study investigates the environmental exposures of Mn and Pb in Durban, South Africa, a region that has utilized both metals in gasoline. Airborne metals were sampled as PM(2.5) and PM(10) at three sites, and blood samples were obtained from a population-based sample of 408 school children attending seven schools. In PM(2.5), Mn and Pb concentrations averaged 17±27 ng m(-3) and 77±91 ng m(-3), respectively; Mn concentrations in PM(10) were higher (49±44 ng m(-3)). In blood, Mn concentrations averaged 10.1±3.4 μg L(-1) and 8% of children exceeded 15 μg L(-1), the normal range. Mn concentrations fit a lognormal distribution. Heavier and Indian children had elevated levels. Pb in blood averaged 5.3±2.1 μg dL(-1), and 3.4% of children exceeded 10 μg dL(-1), the guideline level. Pb levels were best fit by a mixed (extreme value) distribution, and boys and children living in industrialized areas of Durban had elevated levels. Although airborne Mn and Pb concentrations were correlated, blood levels were not. A trend analysis shows dramatic decreases of Pb levels in air and children's blood in South Africa, although a sizable fraction of children still exceeds guideline levels. The study's findings suggest that while vehicle exhaust may contribute to exposures of both metals, other sources currently dominate Pb exposures.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA. stuartb@umich.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

21211823

Citation

Batterman, Stuart, et al. "Manganese and Lead in Children's Blood and Airborne Particulate Matter in Durban, South Africa." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 409, no. 6, 2011, pp. 1058-68.
Batterman S, Su FC, Jia C, et al. Manganese and lead in children's blood and airborne particulate matter in Durban, South Africa. Sci Total Environ. 2011;409(6):1058-68.
Batterman, S., Su, F. C., Jia, C., Naidoo, R. N., Robins, T., & Naik, I. (2011). Manganese and lead in children's blood and airborne particulate matter in Durban, South Africa. The Science of the Total Environment, 409(6), 1058-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.12.017
Batterman S, et al. Manganese and Lead in Children's Blood and Airborne Particulate Matter in Durban, South Africa. Sci Total Environ. 2011 Feb 15;409(6):1058-68. PubMed PMID: 21211823.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Manganese and lead in children's blood and airborne particulate matter in Durban, South Africa. AU - Batterman,Stuart, AU - Su,Feng-Chiao, AU - Jia,Chunrong, AU - Naidoo,Rajen N, AU - Robins,Thomas, AU - Naik,Inakshi, Y1 - 2011/01/05/ PY - 2010/07/23/received PY - 2010/12/06/revised PY - 2010/12/06/accepted PY - 2011/1/8/entrez PY - 2011/1/8/pubmed PY - 2011/3/17/medline SP - 1058 EP - 68 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 409 IS - 6 N2 - Despite the toxicity and widespread use of manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) as additives to motor fuels and for other purposes, information regarding human exposure in Africa is very limited. This study investigates the environmental exposures of Mn and Pb in Durban, South Africa, a region that has utilized both metals in gasoline. Airborne metals were sampled as PM(2.5) and PM(10) at three sites, and blood samples were obtained from a population-based sample of 408 school children attending seven schools. In PM(2.5), Mn and Pb concentrations averaged 17±27 ng m(-3) and 77±91 ng m(-3), respectively; Mn concentrations in PM(10) were higher (49±44 ng m(-3)). In blood, Mn concentrations averaged 10.1±3.4 μg L(-1) and 8% of children exceeded 15 μg L(-1), the normal range. Mn concentrations fit a lognormal distribution. Heavier and Indian children had elevated levels. Pb in blood averaged 5.3±2.1 μg dL(-1), and 3.4% of children exceeded 10 μg dL(-1), the guideline level. Pb levels were best fit by a mixed (extreme value) distribution, and boys and children living in industrialized areas of Durban had elevated levels. Although airborne Mn and Pb concentrations were correlated, blood levels were not. A trend analysis shows dramatic decreases of Pb levels in air and children's blood in South Africa, although a sizable fraction of children still exceeds guideline levels. The study's findings suggest that while vehicle exhaust may contribute to exposures of both metals, other sources currently dominate Pb exposures. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/21211823/Manganese_and_lead_in_children's_blood_and_airborne_particulate_matter_in_Durban_South_Africa_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(10)01320-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -